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When he assures us in the poem: "Four times have I here seen the fields robbed of their treasure," he is not to be taken literally. Who will begrudge an exiled poet the delight of exaggerating his sufferings? Five letters written from London to his parents have been preserved, thanks to the diligence of the Madrid police who seized them in his father's house in their eagerness to follow the movements of this dangerous revolutionary.

They are the typical letters of a schoolboy. The writer makes excuses for his dilatoriness as a correspondent, expresses solicitude for the health of his parents, and suggests the need of a speedy remittance. Living is excessively dear in London. So much so that a suit of clothes costs seventeen pounds sterling; but there will be a reduction of three pounds if the draft is promptly sent.

He asks that the manuscript of his "Pelayo" be sent to him, as he now has abundant leisure to finish the poem. He asks that the remittances be sent to a new agent whom he designates. The first agent was a brute who refused to aid him to get credit.

He wonders that his father should suggest a call upon the Spanish ambassador. Not one word as to his political plans, a discretion for which Don Juan must have thanked him when these interesting documents fell into the hands of the police.

This calling brought him in very little. He may have profited by the charity fund which the Duke of Wellington had raised to relieve the Spanish emigrados. If we may take as autobiographical a statement in "Un Recuerdo," he was entertained for a time at the country seat of Lord Ruthven, an old companion-in-arms of his father's. Ruthven is not a fictitious name, as a glance into the peerage will show. During all this time he was improving his acquaintance with Shakespeare, Milton, Byron, and other English poets.

What is more surprising is that, if we may judge from his subsequent speeches as a deputy, he gained at least a superficial acquaintance with English political thought and became interested in economics. He was a convert to the doctrine of free trade. Meanwhile the parents, who appear to have formed a bad opinion of a land where a suit of clothes cost seventeen pounds, were urging the son to go to France. He himself thought of Holland as a land combining the advantages of liberty and economy.

But before leaving London he required a remittance of four thousand reales. The debt, it was explained, had been incurred as the result of a slight illness. The four thousand reales were duly sent in December, but Espronceda lingered in London a few months longer; first because he was tempted by the prospect of a good position which he failed to secure, and second on account of the impossibility of obtaining a passport to France direct.

He finally made his way to Paris via Brussels, from which city he writes, March 6, All this effectually dispels the legend that he eloped from England with Teresa by way of Cherbourg. The arrival in Paris of the revolutionary fencing-master put the Madrid police in a flutter. On the seventeenth of that same month the consul in Lisbon had reported that Espronceda was planning to join General Mina in an attack upon Navarra; and by the middle of April the ambassador to France had reported his arrival in Paris.

It was then that the brigadier's papers were seized. Measures were taken to prevent Espronceda's receiving passports for the southern provinces of France, and for any other country but England. The latter, therefore, must have felt that they were aiding their own country as well as France when they participated in the July revolution of Espronceda fought bravely for several days at one of the Paris barricades, and wreaked what private grudge he may have had against the house of Bourbon.

After the fall of Charles X, Louis Philippe, whom Espronceda was in after years to term el rey mercader , became king of France. As Ferdinand refused to recognize the new government, the designs of Spanish patriots were not hindered but even favored. The one hope of success lay in winning over recruits on Spanish soil. De Pablo, who found himself facing his old regiment of Volunteers of Navarra, started to make a harangue. The reply was a salvo of musketry, as a result of which De Pablo fell dead.

After some skirmishing most of his followers found refuge on French soil, among them Espronceda. De Pablo's rout, if less glorious than that of Roland on the same battlefield, nevertheless inspired a song. Espronceda celebrated his fallen leader's death in the verses "A la Muerte de D. This bit of diplomacy was so cheap and successful that Louis Philippe tried it again, this time on Russia. His government favored a plot, hatched in Paris, for the freeing of Poland.

Espronceda, who had not yet had his fill of crack-brained adventures, enlisted in this cause also, desiring to do for Poland what Byron had done for Greece; but the czar, wilier than Ferdinand, immediately recognized Louis Philippe. The plot was then quietly rendered innocuous. Espronceda must have felt himself cruelly sold by the "merchant king. Espronceda's literary activity was slight during these events, but his transformation into a full-fledged Romanticist begins at this time.

Hugo's "Orientales," which influenced him profoundly, appeared in , and the first performance of "Hernani" was February 25, There is no record that he formed important literary friendships in either England or France, but, clannish as the emigrados appear to have been, an impressionable nature like Espronceda's must have been as much stirred by the literary as by the political revolution of ; the more so as the great love adventure of his life occurred at this time.

The Mancha family followed the other emigrados to London, just when we cannot say. In course of time Teresa contracted a marriage of convenience with a Spanish merchant domiciled in London, a certain Gregorio de Bayo. Churchman has discovered the following advertisement in El Emigrado Observador , London, February, "The daughters of Colonel Mancha embroider bracelets with the greatest skill, gaining by this industry the wherewithal to aid their honorable indigence.

Espronceda had met the girl in Lisbon, he may later have resumed the acquaintance in London. She may or may not be the Elisa to whom Delio sings in the "Serenata. Shortly afterwards Teresa deserted her husband and an infant son and eloped with Espronceda.

She followed him to Madrid in , where a daughter, Blanca, was born to them in Within a year Teresa abandoned Espronceda and her second child. She sank into the gutter and died a pauper in This sordid romance occupied only about three years of Espronceda's life, a much shorter time than had been supposed. Churchman was the first to break the long conspiracy of silence which withheld from the world Teresa's full name.

But these gentlemen have done nothing more than to tell an open secret. We see a face of a certain hard beauty. We are struck with the elaborate coiffure, the high forehead, the long nose, the weak mouth. The expression is unamiable. It is the face of a termagant ready to abandon husband and child. Espronceda seems to have returned to England for a brief period in , as we may infer from the fact that the poem "A Matilde" is dated London, As the conservatives espoused the cause of the pretender, Don Carlos, the regency was forced to favor the liberals.

The rigid press censorship was abolished, and a general amnesty was granted all the victims of Ferdinand's tyranny. In politics the year marks the beginning of the Carlist war, and in literature of Spanish Romanticism. Espronceda was one of many emigrados who returned to Spain, bringing with them new ideas for the revitalizing of Spanish literature. He did not arrive soon enough to see his aged father. Brigadier Espronceda's death certificate is dated January 10, This step, apparently so inconsistent with his revolutionary activities, has puzzled all his biographers.

But Espronceda was only following the family tradition. His elder brother had done the same. Doubtless he believed, in his first enthusiasm, that Spain was now completely liberalized. Besides, he was a dandy always eager for social distinction, and he had to live down the fact that his mother was proprietress of an establecimiento de coches.

The conduct of his fellow-Numantino, Escosura, who had found it possible to accept a commission under Ferdinand, is far more surprising. Espronceda's snobbishness, if he had any, cannot have been extreme, for he took up residence with his mother over the aforementioned livery stable, in the Calle de San Miguel. Teresa was prudently lodged under another roof. What with her rent from the house, her widow's pension, and the yield of her business venture, she was comfortably circumstanced.

Espronceda's career as a guardsman was brief. This six-volume work was contracted for in and completed and published the same year. For writing it the author received six thousand reales. Many writers in Spain were striving to rival the Wizard of the North at this time.

The latter's best effort in this genre, "Ni Rey ni Roque," , was written when its author was undergoing banishment for political reasons in a corner of Andalusia. To employ the enforced leisure of political exile in writing a historical novel was quite the proper thing to do.

On reading the contract it is apparent that the novel had hardly been begun then, as it was to be paid for in installments. In January of that year El Siglo was founded, a radical journal with which Espronceda was prominently connected. During the brief existence of this incendiary sheet January 21 until March 7 Espronceda contributed to it several political articles. The last issue came out almost wholly blank as an object lesson of the censor's activity. There follow a few months of agitation and political intrigue, the upshot of which was Espronceda's imprisonment for three weeks without trial.

After protesting in the press and appealing to the queen regent, he was released and banished to Badajoz. How long he was absent from the capital we do not know, except that this banishment, like the others, was of short duration. It is difficult to paint anything but a confused picture of Espronceda's life during the remaining years of this decade. After a long literary discussion they would sally forth into the streets, each armed with a peashooter and on mischief bent.

A favorite prank was to tie a chestnut vender's table to a waiting cab and then watch the commotion which followed when the cab started to move. On one occasion, finding the Duke of Alba's coachman asleep on the box, they painted the yellow coach red, so altering it that the very owner failed to recognize it when he left the house where he had been calling.

In politics Espronceda is always a leader in revolt, fighting with pen and sword for his none-too-clearly-defined principles. His ideal is a republic and the downfall of "the spurious race of Bourbon. In literature he is attempting everything, plays, a novel, polemical articles, lyric poems, and one supreme work which is to be the very epic of humanity.

In Espronceda became an officer in the National Militia. In August of that year the militiamen were defeated in an unsuccessful revolt against the Toreno ministry. It was then, when pursued by the police, that a friend secreted him in the safest possible place, the home of a high police official.

Espronceda employed his leisure hours in this refuge by writing "El Mendigo" and "El Verdugo. He was probably trying to bring about a republican form of government. Its success was moderate. Espronceda's contribution was the reading of "El Estudiante de Salamanca. The great political event of this year was the ending of the first Carlist war. The victories of the national troops were celebrated by a huge public demonstration in Madrid on the national holiday, May 2, For this occasion Espronceda wrote his patriotic poem "El Dos de Mayo.

His old teacher Lista wrote a favorable review. From then on Espronceda was a man of note. The Madrid revolution of September 1 forced an unwilling regent to make Espartero, hero of the Carlist war, prime minister.

Espronceda, though not a lawyer, was chosen to defend the journal. This he did with complete success. Nevertheless he was soon to compromise. In November, , he accepted an appointment to serve as secretary to the Spanish legation at the Hague.

He served in this capacity exactly five days. Arriving at the Hague on January 29, , he departed for Madrid on February 3. He was now urged to resign to make room for Espronceda. This he did, and Espronceda was elected and served in his stead. Of course all this had been prearranged. After his return he continued to hold his diplomatic position and receive pay for it, a not very honorable course on the part of one who pled so eloquently for the abolition of useless offices and the reform of the diplomatic service.

In this way the Espartero government conciliated Espronceda with two offices. Henceforth his republicanism was lukewarm. Escosura tells us that concern for his daughter Blanca's financial future had rendered him prudent. I am inclined to think that Espronceda's biographers underrate his services in the Chamber of Deputies. Those who looked for revolution in his speeches found only sound finance. We seek in vain for anything subversive. As a poet he had praised the destructive fury of the Cossacks who swept away decadent governments.

By this time he had himself become a Cossack on a small scale. Fitzmaurice-Kelly is possibly going too far in intimating that he was degenerating into a hidebound conservative and opportunist. Something of the old reforming zeal survived.

Though many disillusionments may have rendered him less eager for a republican form of government, his latest utterances show him zealous as ever for social and economic reform. Espronceda's parliamentary career lasted less than three months March 1 to May 23, One can only wonder that in so brief a time a man already stricken with a fatal illness should have taken so able a part in an assembly in which he was a newcomer.

Nor should we complain that his speeches lack eloquence. His views were sober and sound. Travel had given him a wider outlook than most of his colleagues possessed. But he is no jingo. He speaks against the bill to add fifty thousand to the standing army.

Spain had passed through too many upheavals. What she needed to make her a European power was tranquility and opportunity to develop financial strength. Give the producing classes their long-awaited innings.

But he is bitter against the magnates of the bourse and those politicians who legislate to produce an artificial rise in values. The true policy is to better the condition of the masses, to encourage agriculture and manufactures: even the construction of railways should wait until there is first something to haul over them.

But manufactures should not be protected by a tariff. In his speech against the tariff on cotton he shows himself an out and out free-trader. He praises the English for their policy of free trade, enlightened self-interest he deems it, which tends to make the world one large family. As a writer he had inveighed against commercialism.

But he now discerns a future where commerce shall replace war. He was unable to foresee that in the future trade was to be a chief cause of war. This gentleman had made sneering allusions to men of letters who dabbled in diplomacy. Far from accepting the remark as a thrust at himself, as it was intended, Espronceda resented it as an insult to the then American minister Washington Irving, "novelist of the first rank, known in Europe through his writings even more than through the brilliancy of his diplomatic career.

Espronceda's health had been failing for some months. Others say he was taken ill at a reception given by Espartero. He died May 23, , at the early age of He was honored with a public funeral in keeping with his position as deputy and distinguished man of letters. In forming our estimate of the man, we must carefully distinguish between the Espronceda of legend and the Espronceda of fact; for a legend sprang up during his own lifetime, largely the result of his own self-defamation.

Like many other Romanticists, Espronceda affected a reputation for diabolism. He loved to startle the bourgeois, to pose as atheist, rake, deposer of tyrants. Escosura sums up this aspect of his character by branding him "a hypocrite of vice. Such criticism would have delighted Espronceda, but the imputation was indignantly denied by his close friend Escosura. Modern critics are careful to avoid this extreme; but, in the delight of supporting a paradox, some are disposed to go too far in the opposite direction.

Like the devil, Espronceda was not so black as he was painted, not so black as he painted himself; but he was far from being a Joseph. It is easy to minimize the importance of the part he played in the national militia. Doubtless much of his plotting was puerile and melodramatic. His activities as a revolutionist cannot have greatly affected the course of events.

But it is unfair to deny him credit for constant willingness to risk his life in any cause which seemed noble. That his conduct was inconsistent merely proves that he followed no calmly reasoned political system. He reflects in his conduct the heated sentiment of the time, varying as it did from day to day. He sometimes compromised with his ideals, his sense of honor was not always of the highest, but he never seems to have grown lukewarm in his desire to serve the people.

He is a liberal to the last, a liberal with notions of political economy and English constitutional practice. His quarrel with the church seems to have been political rather than theological. He hated the friars and the church's alliance with Carlism. That the last rites were administered to him shows that he died a professing Catholic. In appearance Espronceda was handsome, if somewhat too effeminate-looking to suggest the fire-eater.

He never cultivated slovenliness of attire like most members of the Romantic school; on the contrary, he was the leading representative in Spain of dandyism. To sum up, Espronceda's was a tempestuous and very imperfect character. The best that can be said of him is that he was a warm, affectionate nature, generous, charitable to the poor, a loyal friend, and one actuated by noble, if sometimes mistaken, ideals.

Years afterward, when Escosura passed in review the little circle of the Colegio de San Mateo, Espronceda was the only one of them whom he could truly say he loved. Of all the Spanish poets of the period of Romanticism, Espronceda is the most commanding figure. More than that, criticism is unanimous in considering him Spain's greatest lyric poet of the nineteenth century. First of all he interests as the poet of democracy. The Romantic poets were no more zealous seekers for political liberalism than the classic poets of the previous generation had been; but their greater subjectivity and freedom of expression rendered their appeal more vigorous.

Espronceda's hatred for absolutism was so intense that in moments of excitement he became almost anti-social. The pirate, the beggar, the Cossack, were his heroes. The love of this dandy for the lower classes cannot be dismissed as mere pose. He keenly sympathized with the oppressed, and felt that wholesale destruction must precede the work of construction.

We look in vain for a reasoned political philosophy in his volcanic verse. According to his lights he is always a patriot. Liberty and democracy are his chief desires. Like most Romanticists, Espronceda was intensely subjective. He interests by his frank display of his inner moods. Bonilla, in his illuminating article "El Pensamiento de Espronceda," states that the four essential points in the philosophy of Romanticism were: doubt, the first principle of thought; sorrow, the positive reality of life; pleasure, the world's illusion; death, the negation of the will to live.

Espronceda shared all of these ideas. It is often impossible to say how much of his suffering is a mere Byronic pose, and how much comes from the reaction of an intensely sensitive nature to the hard facts of existence. There is evidence that he never lost the zest of living; but in his writings he appears as one who has been completely disillusionized by literature, love, politics, and every experience of life. Truth is the greatest of evils, because truth is always sad; "mentira," on the other hand, is merciful and kind.

He carries doubt so far that he doubts his very doubts. Such a philosophy should logically lead to quietism. That pessimism did not in the case of Espronceda bring inaction makes one suspect that it was largely affected. There is nothing profound in this very commonplace philosophy of despair. It is the conventional attitude of hosts of Romanticists who did little but re-echo the Vanitas vanitatum of the author of Ecclesiastes.

Espronceda's thought is too shallow to entitle him to rank high as a philosophic poet. Genuine world-weariness is the outgrowth of a more complex civilization than that of Spain. Far from being a Leopardi, Espronceda may nevertheless be considered the leading Spanish exponent of the taedium vitae.

He has eloquently expressed this commonplace and conventional attitude of mind. Like so many other writers of the Latin race, Espronceda is more admirable for the form in which he clothed his thoughts than for those thoughts themselves. He wrote little and carefully.

He is remarkable for his virtuosity, his harmonious handling of the most varied meters. He never, like Zorrilla, produces the effect of careless improvisation. Fitzmaurice-Kelly, with his happy knack of hitting off an author's characteristics in a phrase, says: "He still stirs us with his elemental force, his resonant musical potency of phrase, his communicative ardor for noble causes.

Much harm has been done Espronceda's reputation for originality by those critics who fastened upon him the name of "the Spanish Byron. The truth is that Byron did influence Espronceda profoundly, as Churchman has sufficiently proved by citing many instances of borrowings from the English poet, where resemblance in matters of detail is wholly conclusive; but it is another matter to assert that Espronceda was always Byronic or had no originality of his own.

In considering Espronceda's writings in detail, we need concern ourselves little with his dramatic and prose writings. The quickest road to literary celebrity was the writing of a successful play. Espronceda seems never to have completely relinquished the hope of achieving such a success. Larra censured it for its insipidity and lack of plan. This was a five-act costume play, in prose, portraying the life at the court of Philip IV.

It was produced without regard to expense, but with indifferent success. The first two acts were written in Espronceda's early Classic manner; the last three, written at a later period, are Romantic in tone. The influence of "Macbeth" is apparent. The verse, too, is not worthy of the author. Espronceda was too impetuous a writer to comply with the restrictions of dramatic technique.

It is a historical novel of the thirteenth century, written frankly in imitation of Walter Scott's Waverley Novels. The romance contains many tiresome descriptions of scenery, and drags along tediously as most old-fashioned novels did. But Espronceda had none of Sir Walter's archaeological erudition, none of his ability to seize the characteristics of an epoch, and above all none of his skill as a creator of interesting characters.

The most that can be said of the work is that among the numerous imitations of Scott's novels which appeared at the time it is neither the best nor the worst. They are vivid portrayals of certain episodes of his exile, and may still be read with interest. This and shorter political articles interest the historian and the biographer, but hardly count as literature.

His rare attempts at literary criticism have even less value. Espronceda shows true greatness only as a lyric poet. Like Byron in the "Corsair," he extols the lawless liberty of the buccaneer. Byron was here his inspiration rather than Hugo. The "Chanson de Pirates" cannot stand comparison with either work. But Espronceda's indebtedness to Byron was in this case very slight. He has made the theme completely his own. The "Canto del Cosaco" was a prime favorite with the revolutionary youth of Spain, who thundered out the "hurras" with telling effect.

They make up in grace what they lack in vigor. It challenges comparison with the Duque de Rivas' very similar poem. It betrays the peevishness of a Romanticist writing when Romanticism was already on the wane. Even if death had spared him, it is doubtful if he could have finished so all-embracing a theme as he proposed:. Adam, hero of the epic, is introduced in Canto I as an aged scholar disillusioned with life, but dreading the proximity of Death, with whom he converses in a vision.

Here his disillusionment begins. His nakedness shocks public morality; and the innocent Adam who is hostile to nobody, and in whom the brilliant spectacle of nature produces nothing but rejoicing, receives blows, stonings, and imprisonment from his neighbors. Childlike he touches the bayonet of one of his captors, and is wounded. This symbolizes the world's hostility to the innocent. In Canto IV we find Adam in prison.

His teachers are criminals. He was born for good; society instructs him in evil. In Canto V he experiences love with the manola Salada, but sees in this passion nothing but impurity. He longs for higher things. Circumstances abase him to crime. He joins a band of burglars, and, falling in love with the lady whose house they are pillaging, protects her against the gang.

In Canto VI he continues along his path of sorrow. He enters a house where a beautiful girl is dying, while in another room revelers are making merry. This leads him to speculate on life's mysteries and to reason for himself. The poem ends where Adam has become thoroughly sophisticated. He is now like any other man. Evidently it was the poet's intention to make Adam go through a series of adventures in various walks of life, everywhere experiencing disillusionment.

Espronceda frankly reveals to us his methods of poetic composition:. It has numerous merits and originalities of its own. Inferior as Espronceda is to Byron in wit and to Goethe in depth, he can vie with either as a harmonious versifier.

The philosophy of "El Diablo Mundo" is the commonplace pessimism of Romanticism. The following excerpt shows how the author's skepticism leads him to doubt his very doubts; hence his return to a questioning acceptance of Christianity:.

Descansa en Paz. It is included in the present collection because it is the supreme expression of our poet's subjective method. As such it stands in excellent contrast to "El Estudiante de Salamanca," which is purely objective. No reader knows Espronceda who has read merely his objective poems. But for once we may be sure that the poet is writing under the stress of genuine emotion. For once he is free from posing. The first of these may be briefly stated as follows: Don Juan Tenorio was a young aristocrat of Seville famous for his dissolute life, a gambler, blasphemer, duelist, and seducer of women.

The latter challenges Don Juan to a duel, and falls. Later Don Juan enters the church where the Commander lies buried and insults his stone statue, after which he invites the statue to sup with him that night. At midnight Don Juan and his friends are making merry when a knock is heard at the door and the stone guest enters. Don Juan, who does not lose his bravery even in the presence of the supernatural, plays the host, maintaining his air of insulting banter.

At the end of the evening the guest departs, offering to repay the hospitality the following night if Don Juan will visit his tomb at midnight. Though friends try to dissuade him, Don Juan fearlessly accepts the invitation. At the appointed hour he visits the tomb. Flames emerge from it, and Don Juan pays the penalty of his misdeeds, dying without confession. In the hands of non-Spanish writers the character of Don Juan loses the greater part of its essential nobility.

To them Don Juan is the type of libertine and little more. He is a superman whose soaring ambition mounts so high that earth cannot satisfy it. The bravest may be permitted to falter in the presence of the supernatural; but Don Juan fears neither heaven nor hell. His bravery transcends all known standards, and this one virtue, though it does not save him from hell, redeems him in popular esteem.

As a youth his character resembled that of Don Juan. One day some hams sent to him from the country were intercepted by the customs. He started out to punish the offending officers, but on the way repented and thenceforth led a virtuous life.

In , after his wife's death, he entered the Hermandad de la Caridad, later becoming superior of that order. In his will he endowed the brotherhood with all his wealth and requested that he be buried under the threshold of the chapel of San Jorge. His sole epitaph was to be "Here repose the bones and ashes of the worst man who ever existed in the world.

He is said to have fallen in love with the statue on the Giralda tower. On one occasion the devil gave him a light for his cigar, reaching across the Guadalquivir to do so. Again, he pursued a woman into the very cathedral, forcibly pulled aside her mantilla and discovered a skeleton. Yet more surprising, he was present, when still alive, at his own funeral in the Church of Santiago.

He enters her convent with false keys only to find a funeral in progress. On inquiring the name of the deceased, he is told that it is himself. He then runs home pursued by two devils in the form of dogs who tear him to pieces after he has made pious repentance. Lozano, too, is the first to make the male protagonist a Salamanca student. I, pp. This ballad of Lisardo the Student of Cordova was undoubtedly Espronceda's main source in writing "The Student of Salamanca," and to it he refers in line 2 with the words antiguas historias cuentan.

Yet the indebtedness was small. Espronceda took from the ballad merely the idea of making the hero of the adventure a Salamanca student, and the episode of a man witnessing his own funeral. Needless to say Espronceda's finished versification owed nothing to the halting meter of the original. Lisardo, a Salamanca student, though a native of Cordova, falls in love with Teodora, sister of a friend, Claudio.

Teodora is soon to become a nun. One night he makes love to her and is only mildly rebuked. But a ghostly swordsman warns him that he will be slain if he does not desist. Nevertheless he continues his wooing in spite of the fact that Teodora has become a nun. She agrees to elope. While on his way to the convent to carry out this design, his attention is attracted by a group of men attacking an individual. This individual proves to be himself, Lisardo. Lisardo, then, witnesses his own murder and subsequent funeral obsequies.

This warning is too terrible not to heed. He gives over his attempt at seduction and leads an exemplary life. There are many other examples in the literature of Spain of the man who sees his own funeral. San Pablo. This became immediately popular in Spain. It seems likely that Espronceda derived his whole inspiration for this scene from Moreto's "San Franco de Sena," which he quotes. The legend of the man who sees his own funeral belongs to the realm of folk-lore.

Like superstitions are to be found wherever the Celtic race has settled. In Spain they are especially prevalent in Galicia and Asturias. There the estantigua or "ancient enemy" appears to those soon to die. These spirits, or almas en pena , appear wearing winding-sheets, bearing candles, a cross, and a bier on which a corpse is lying. Don Quijote in attacking the funeral procession probably thought he had to do with the estantigua.

Furthermore, Said Armesto in his illuminating study "La Leyenda de Don Juan" proves that the custom of saying requiem masses for the living was very ancient in Spain. One recalls, too, how Charles V in his retirement at Yuste rehearsed his own funeral, actually entering the coffin while mass was being said.

Of all Espronceda's poems "El Estudiante de Salamanca" is the most popular. It has a unity and completeness lacking in both the "Pelayo" and "El Diablo Mundo. Espronceda attempted this literary form but once, yet of all the numerous "legends" written in Spain this is the most fitted to survive.

Nowhere else has the poet shown equal virtuosity in the handling of unusual meters. Nowhere among his works is there greater variety or harmony of verse. Though not the most serious, this is the most pleasing of his poems. Espronceda follows the Horatian precept of starting his story "in the middle of things.

Part Second, the most admired, is elegiac in nature. It pleases by its simple melancholy. This part and the dramatic tableau of Part Three explain the cause of the duel with which Part One begins. Part Four resumes the thread of the narration where it was broken off in Part One, and ends with the Dance of Death which forms the climax of the whole. Originality cannot be claimed for it, as it is the conventional Don Juan Tenorio type. It does not abound in quotable passages like the "Diablo Mundo.

It teaches no lesson. Its merit is its perfection of form. XXIII, pp. The very uncritical book by E. IV, pp, , is admirable as a biography and a criticism, though partially superseded by later works containing the results of new discoveries. Churchman, "Byron and Espronceda," Revue hispanique , Vol. XX, pp. This last was first printed in the Bulletin hispanique for The older biography of D.

The second volume, which was to contain the prose writings, never appeared. An excellent French version is that of R. Mary J. For a very full treatment and bibliography of the Don Juan Tenorio legend see G. I, 7, pp. To enjoy the work of so musical an artist as Espronceda, the student must be able to read his verse in the original.

This cannot be done without some knowledge of the rules which govern the writing of Spanish poetry. It therefore becomes necessary to give some account of the elementary principles of Spanish prosody. This is not the place for a complete treatment of the subject: only so much will be attempted as is necessary for the intelligent comprehension of our author's writings. A knowledge of English prosody will hinder rather than help the student; for the Spanish poet obeys very different laws from those which govern the writer of English verse.

The two essentials of Spanish poetry are 1 a fixed number of syllables in each verse by verse we mean a single line of poetry ; 2 a rhythmical arrangement of the syllables within the verse. Rime and assonance are hardly less important, but are not strictly speaking essential. When a verse is stressed on the final syllable, it is called a verso agudo or masculine verse. When a verse is stressed on the next to the last syllable, it is called a verso llano or feminine verse.

For the sake of convenience, the verso llano is considered the normal verse. Thus, in an eight-syllable verse of this type the final stress always falls on the seventh syllable, in a six- syllable verse on the fifth syllable, etc. In the case of the verso agudo , where the final stress falls on the final syllable, a verse having actually seven syllables would nevertheless be counted as having eight.

These three kinds of verses are frequently used together in the same strophe copla or stanza and held to be of equal length. Theoretically these are all five-syllable verses. The first is a verso llano , the normal verse. It alone has five syllables. It actually has six syllables, but theoretically is held to have five. The third is a verso agudo. It actually has but four syllables, but in theory is designated a five-syllable verse.

All three verses agree in having the final stress fall upon the fourth syllable. It would be simpler if, following the French custom, nothing after the final stress were counted; but Spaniards prefer to consider normal the verse of average length. It follows from this definition that a monosyllabic verse is an impossibility in Spanish.

Espronceda writes:. He is not here dropping from dissyllabic to monosyllabic verse, but the last verse too must be considered a line of two syllables. Espronceda never uses a measure of more than twelve syllables in the selections included in this book. Serious poets never attempt anything longer than a verse of sixteen syllables. Spanish vowels are divided into two classes: the strong vowels, a , o , e , and the weak vowels, u , i. According to the Academy rules, followed by most grammarians, there can be no diphthongization of two strong vowels in the proper pronunciation of prose; only when a strong unites with a weak or two weaks unite can diphthongization take place.

In verse, on the other hand, diphthongization of two strong vowels is not only allowable but common. This would probably not be the case if the same thing did not have considerable justification in colloquial practice. Of the three strong vowels, a is "dominant" over o and e ; o is dominant over e ; and any one of the three is dominant over u or i. A dominant vowel is one which has the power of attracting to itself the stress which, except for diphthongization, would fall on the other vowel with which it unites.

The vowel losing the stress is called the "absorbed" vowel. This principle, which we find exemplified in the earliest poetic monuments of the language, must be thoroughly understood by the student of modern Spanish verse. Syneresis is the uniting of two or three vowels, each of which is ordinarily possessed of full syllabic value, into a diphthong or a triphthong, thereby reducing the number of syllables in the word; h does not interfere with syneresis.

In this verse it counts as three. The numbers in parentheses indicate the syllables in the verse. Remember that the figure represents the theoretical number of syllables in the line, and indicates the actual number only in the case of the verso llano. Furthermore, the figure has been determined by a comparison with adjacent lines in the same stanzas, verses which offer no metrical difficulties. So likewise in:. Such are called words of double accentuation. The principle is different from that governing the stress-shift explained above.

The word has its ordinary value in the following:. In the first two examples there is no stress-shift. In the third, the stress travels from the o of Ahora to the initial a. In the following example ahora has three syllables:. Espronceda violates the rule in this instance:. This is a peculiarly violent and harsh syneresis. Such a syneresis is more pardonable at the beginning of a verse than in any other position; but good modern poets strive to avoid such harshnesses.

Dieresis is the breaking up of vowel-combinations in such a way as to form an additional syllable in the word. It is the opposite of syneresis. Dieresis never occurs in the case of the diphthongs ie and ue derived from Latin e , and o , in words like tierra , bueno , etc. In certain words, such as cruel , metrical custom preserves a pronunciation in which the adjacent vowels have separate syllabic value.

Traditional grammar, represented by the Academy, asserts that such is the correct pronunciation of these words to this day; but the actual speech of the best speakers diphthongizes these vowels, and their separation in poetry must rank as a dieresis.

In printing poetry it is customary to print the mark of dieresis on many words in which dieresis is regular as well as on those in which it is exceptional. Synalepha is the combining into one syllable of two or more adjacent vowels or diphthongs of different words.

It is the same phenomenon as syneresis extended beyond the single word. H does not prevent synalepha. The number of synalephas possible in a single verse is theoretically limited only by the number of syllables in that verse. A simple instance:. The number of vowels entering into a synalepha is commonly two or three; rarely four, and, by a tour de force , even five:. Synalepha is not prevented by any mark of punctuation separating the two words nor by the caesural pause see below.

In dramatic verse a synalepha may even be divided between two speakers. In the short lines of "El Mendigo," Espronceda mingles four- with five-syllable verses. But as the five-syllable verses begin with vowels and the preceding four-syllable verses end with vowels, the former sound no longer than the rest. In very short lines synalepha may occur between one verse and another following it.

See also line of "El Estudiante de Salamanca. The simplest case is where both vowels entering into synalepha occur in unstressed syllables:. When the two vowels coming together are identical, as here, they fuse into a single sound s'escuchan , with only a slight gain in the quantity of the vowel. Se here has no individual accent in the stress-group. Where the vowels in synalepha are different, each is sounded, but the stronger or more dominant is the one more distinctly heard:.

The second case is where the vowel or diphthong ending the first word in the synalepha bears the stress, and the initial vowel or diphthong of the second word is unstressed. Examples which do not involve stress-shift:. In the following examples stress-shift occurs, because the unstressed vowel is dominant while the stressed vowel is absorbed. Such stress-shifts as these are sanctioned only when they do not coincide with a strong rhythmic stress see below in the verse.

They are less offensive at the beginning than at the end:. The third case is where the second vowel or diphthong bears the stress, while the first is unstressed:. In cases like these we are dealing with a form of synalepha which, if not true elision, approaches it closely. Under this case, too, there may arise stress-shift:.

This is a very bad verse. But such instances are rare in Espronceda and good modern poets. They are never sanctioned in connection with a strong rhythmic stress. In such a case hiatus see below is favored as the lesser of two evils. What happens here is that one of the two stresses becomes subordinate to the other, the stress being wholly assumed by the more dominant of the two. Where three or more vowels unite in a synalepha, two things must be borne in mind: 1 Stress-shift is not harsh to the Spanish ear, and is always permissible, if more than two vowels are involved.

This is Espronceda's justification in the following:. There is one case in the text where he as middle word does enter into synalepha, but this is merely the fusion of three identical vowels:. Hiatus is the breaking up into two syllables of vowel combinations in adjacent words capable of entering into synalepha. It is an extension to the word-group of dieresis, which applies only to a single word.

Many authorities on Spanish versification recognize as hiatus various cases which should not be so classified. In words like yo, yerro, hierro, huevo , etc. To classify the following as examples of hiatus is to be phonetically unsound:. In none of these cases could there possibly be synalepha. Consequently by definition there can be no hiatus. Hiatus most frequently occurs to avoid the greater cacophony which would arise from stress-shift under case 3 of synalepha:.

Lack of hiatus would here produce a stress-shift resulting in an unharmonious stressing of two successive syllables. The same principle applies here as in the above, except that the effect would be even worse, because the stress shift would come under the rhythmic stress.

See below. In these two examples instead of hiatus there is synalepha with stress-shift, but we have to do with case 2 of synalepha, not case 3. In general hiatus is most likely to occur before the principal rhythmic stress in a verse; that is, before the final stress. In English poetry the foot, rather than the syllable, is the unit. The number of feet to a verse is fixed, but the number of syllables varies.

In Spanish poetry the number of syllables to a verse is fixed, subject only to the laws of syllable-counting given above. But if in this respect the Spanish poet has less freedom than the English versifier, he has infinitely greater liberty in the arrangement of his rhythms. The sing-song monotony of regularly recurring beats is intolerable to Latin ears. The greater flexibility of Spanish rhythm can best be shown by illustrations:.

Having chosen to write this poem in the anapestic tetrameter, Byron never varies the rhythm except to substitute an occasional iambic at the beginning of a verse:. The first of these stanzas has the true Byronic swing. But note how freely the rhythm is handled in the second. Spanish rhythm is so flexible and free that little practical advantage is gained by counting feet. Of course, a three-syllable foot is often found in binary verse, and, vice versa a two-syllable foot in ternary measure.

By binary verse we mean only a form of verse in which the twofold measure predominates, and by ternary one in which the threefold measure predominates. The extract last quoted is an example of ternary verse. The following will serve as a specimen of the binary movement:. In addition to its word-accent hablado bears what we term a phrase-accent. In any line of verse some of the word-stresses are stronger than others, and these stronger stresses are termed rhythmic stresses.

They correspond to the phrase-stresses of prose. The principal rhythmic stress is the last stress of the line. In general the rhythmic stress must coincide with a word-stress. It always does except where stress-shift comes into play. We have already seen that a stress-shift coinciding with the rhythmic stress is intolerable, and hiatus is preferred. It is very unharmonious for two stresses to fall together at the end of a verse:.

The result is unharmonious. Every effort is made by a good poet to avoid such a cacophony. The above is a good example of one. A short verse can easily be spoken without pause, but above ten syllables it becomes necessary for the reader to rest somewhere within the line. The resting-place is called the caesural pause. The longer the verse, the greater its importance. It does not prevent synalepha. The stress immediately before the caesura must be the second most important rhythmic stress of the verse.

The regularity of the beats in English verse is of itself sufficient to indicate when a line of poetry is ended, even though there be no rime to mark that end. Hence blank verse has been highly developed by English poets, and many, like Milton, have held it to be the noblest form of verse. Blank verse is impossible in French, because French with its lack of verbal stress has no other device than rime to mark the end of a verse.

Without rime French blank verse would be indistinguishable from rhythmic prose. In Spanish the stress is not so heavy as in the Germanic languages, but, on the other hand, is much stronger than in French. Spanish blank verse is not unknown, but has never been cultivated with great success.

It is evident that in this language too, lacking as it does regular rhythm in its versification, rime is much more necessary than in English. However, an occasional verso suelto , or blank verse, intermingled with rimed ones, is very common. Two words rime with one another when there is identity of sound between the last stressed vowels and between any letters which may follow these vowels.

Rime is masculine in Spanish rima aguda when the last syllables bear the stress: mal — cristal ; or feminine when an unstressed vowel follows the stressed one in Spanish rima llana : hermosura — locura. Inasmuch as b and v represent the same sound, they rime. The weak vowel of a diphthong is ignored for riming purposes; thus vuelo rimes with cielo. Good poets avoid obvious or easy rimes such as those yielded by flexional endings and suffixes.

Assonance is the identity of sound of two or more stressed vowels and the final following vowels, if there are any. In case consonants stand after the stressed vowel they are disregarded. Web icon An illustration of a computer application window Wayback Machine Texts icon An illustration of an open book.

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Cantinflas , who hasn't finished his Lawyer career after 10 years , is usually advised by an old University professor Ramon de Arvide : Angel Garasa. Finally , Cantinflas abandon them and decides to open his own office , though without his degree. Supported by the beautiful secretary : Lupita Ferrer of his former employment , he helps unfortunate people , as a dancing girl whose child is wanted to be taken by a state orphanage or various tenants whose land lord wishes to evict their flats.

Along the way Cantinflas walks with his pet , a small goatling , here and there. Fast-talking Cantinflas steals the spectacle , using his ordinary skills , tics , jokers and his ordinary aspect as his two-piece moustache , though this time he dresses more elegant than former entries , the reason for he is working as an advocate intern. Cantinflas performs the common show , regular routine touches , engaging drawn-out chatting and fraternity with everybody.

Cantinflas shows his magnificent comical abilities , including optimism, sympathy , comradeship , amusement and fun. Mexico's biggest and most beloved and intimate comedy film star of all time had an important career as national as international, in fact he was described as the World greatest comedian by none other than Charles Chaplin.

Here Cantinflas was in his middle-late career that began in the Forties. His films made more money than any other Spanish language feature ever shown in the United States and all over the World. The motion picture was well and professionally made by Cantinflas's ordinary director , Miguel Maria Delgado , and shot in Churubasco studios , Mexico DC as usual.

The film will appeal to Cantinflas fans. Worthwhile watching. Details Edit. Release date September 17, Mexico. Un Quijote sin mancha. Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico. Posa Films. Technical specs Edit. Runtime 1 hour 40 minutes. Related news. Contribute to this page Suggest an edit or add missing content. Top Gap. See more gaps Learn more about contributing. Edit page. The Old Man: Season 1.

Marvel: Season 1. Dark Winds: Season 1. The Umbrella Academy: Season 3. Certified Fresh Pick. View All. Scene in Color Film Series. Log in with Facebook. Email address. Log In. First Name. Last Name. By signing up, you agree to receiving newsletters from Rotten Tomatoes. You may later unsubscribe. Create your account Already have an account? Email Address. Real Quick. We want to hear what you have to say but need to verify your email.

Please click the link below to receive your verification email. Cancel Resend Email. You might also like. Rate And Review Submit review Want to see. Super Reviewer. Rate this movie Oof, that was Rotten. What did you think of the movie? Step 2 of 2 How did you buy your ticket? Let's get your review verified. Fandango AMCTheatres. More Info. Submit By opting to have your ticket verified for this movie, you are allowing us to check the email address associated with your Rotten Tomatoes account against an email address associated with a Fandango ticket purchase for the same movie.

How did you buy your ticket? View All Photos 9. Movie Info. A lawyer trying to fix everyone's problems, instead causes problems, which always end up in funny situations. Miguel M. Jacques Gelman. Cantinflas , Jaime Salvador. Dec 1, Cantinflas Justo Leal y Aventado. Susana Salvat Sara Buenrostro. Alberto Borrego.

Carlos Riquelme Juez. Delgado Director. Cantinflas Screenwriter. Jaime Salvador Screenwriter. Jacques Gelman Producer.

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Un quijote sin mancha

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Un quijote sin mancha dvdrip torrent They were all released after a few weeks of nominal servitude. Hence this work was not so sterile as his earlier performances. Neither the university nor the city retains much of its ancient importance. Hiatus is the breaking up into two syllables of vowel combinations in adjacent words capable of entering into synalepha. Send him victorious, Happy and glorious, Long to reign over us, God save the king! The usual accent is intentionally omitted from veame. In the weak third act he becomes a Carmelite monk, and his companions in sin experience a like change of heart.

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