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If we consider the scale of a pattern for any work, we must needs take some feature as the unit Mr. MacColl, recognising that the structure of a bound volume is based upon the strings which cross the back, and that the relative sizes of the spaces between these strings are governed not only by the height but by the thickness of the book, has observed shrewdly that these said spaces call them panels if you will suggest the true scale for the design of the side.

In other words, he thinks that the scale of the pattern should never be too coarse or too heavy to be used in these circumscribed spaces. It is obvious that the lettering must always be controlled by them. Every notable binder has obeyed that principle consciously or unconsciously; but, oddly enough, pat- Digitized by Google A Spanish JVriting Book tem has not always been influenced by the same rule.

But in speaking generally of " styles " in binding it is hard to find any old " style " peculiar to bindings whence to start a survey. Bindings have hitherto employed with certain adaptations the style in vogue at the period for the decorative metal work, embroideries, and other substances. Scarce one has been developed by the material, and possibly not one has been consciously developed in a logical attempt to analyse the structural features of the book, and to plan the decoration accordingly.

Limiting our attention to whole-bound books, we find that the raised bands of the older fashion will show almost the only distinct effort to emphasise the construction by the ornament It is true that good craftsmen, from the earliest to the latest, have kept the proportions of the decoration to a pleasant scale, and have taken now the lettering as the unit as in Mr.

Cobden- Sanderson's Chancer , and again the principal " motive " of the ornament as in the Grolier bind- ings. But when stock stamps are used, it follows that the scale can only be varied within limits. Perhaps, as a hasty attempt to differentiate between the old and new methods, we may say that Mr.

MacColl has superseded "stamps" by her rouletted line. This is, of course, a very rough-and-ready definition; but while Mr. In this paper the decoration, and that only, has been touched upon. The equally important principles which regulate the " forwarding " of the book must be left to a more convenient occasion. Gleeson White. And a little learning so increases love for this homely art — already, if we only knew it, lying at the finger-tips of each of us — that it seems worth while to sit for a space "at the feet of one of the long-forgotten writing-masters, and see if his teaching has not yet a value.

Qwdf actum tit intpfoyitacmt. Tlbi omnes angdi. Tibi Cherubim SSe- raphinv in ceflabili voce proclamant, Sandus. Sanftus, Sandus Dominus Deus Sabaoth. Quite at the outset arises a sense of dignity and deliberation, of nice selection, of clever craftsmanship, with all its dainty little evidences of the scribe's love for his work — But first a note is needed to explain the existence of any professed teacher of caligraphy. In the age which saw the birth of printing, the art of fine writing was a rare acquirement outside the religious institutions, the legal seminaries, and the guilds of illuminators and scribes, which, so far from popularising it, fenced about their craft with many and various limitations, especially as to the admis- sion and training of new members.

But this new device of printing not only revolutionised the old corporations. On the model of this latter master is founded the Arte de Escrivir of Francisco Lucas Madrid, , the blocks dated , which forms the subject of the present paper. The book begins with much parade of royal licence, of dedication, of gratulator ' verse addressed to the author; but this once over, our master plunges directly into his subject with useful disser- tation on the different styles of lettering in use, the manner of holding the pen, and "other matters necessary and convenient.

A little practice will realise this position much more easily than pages of instruc- tion, when it is remembered that the pen is a reed or quill cut to a fairly broad point ; and that the thick and thin strokes of the writing are to produce themselves naturally with the swing of the hand.

It becomes convenient in this connection, also to point oat the essential difference between the old and the new methods of writing ; in the latter thick or thin strokes are the result, to a considerable extent, of variations in the pressure put upon the nib — a practice provocative of the maximum of friction between pen and paper and only effective of an artificial line ; while in the former these differences of strength are the easy consequence of the angle which the point of the quill or reed makes with its line of general progression.

When this principle is once grasped, it becomes possible both to understand the examples of our master and to reproduce them. But there is yet another important technical question to be eluci- dated. It may perhaps illus- trate my meaning to say that the very precise and somewhat long-winded directions given by Lucas for the making of the a in this character, require specifically four several movements of the pen.

With this explanatory note on technique, we can pass to a brief consideration of the examples reproduced. The Lttra de redondOy already referred to, is a beautiful and simple script, which should be of much use to the modern designer. It is of uncial character, although widely divergent in detail from the grand Latin alphabets of the sixth century, of which it may, in some sort, be regarded as the descendant For the writing of it, a reed will be found more satisfactory than a quill; indeed, its boldness and uniformity can scarcely be obtained by any other tool.

The illustration sufficiently indicates the style both of capitals and of numerals most suitable, as well as the occasional linking-up of letters which is permissible. But the spacing leaves room for improvement, as the block is certainly too closely packed for perfect legibility. This is a fault, also, in the setting of the rest of the volume before us. The B as tarda has been already considered.

It needs only to point out that it is essentially a quill-pen character, unusually graceful and con- sistent. A running hand founded on the last example is of much interest The bold and well-proportioned flourishes harmonise with the resonant dignity of the titles set forth by them. The student must not, however, make the mistake of judging this block as he would a design, and so condemning it for being overcrowded and therein bad.

Neither is he to imagine that the luxuriance is inseparable from the style. The master's object was to display his skill to the utmost extent his space permitted ; and to give, so to speak, an epitome of flourish in the smallest possible compass. Another quill-pen script is the Redondilla liana — plain round hand — less bold than the letra bastarda and without the slope which gives the latter their name.

Nevertheless, it may prove of value in the sugges- tion of form ; the d and g are both interesting, while the signature alone would justify the repro- duction of the whole. The remaining illustrations are from pen-drawings by Lucas, of Roman and Italic type-letters respec- tively, and are included in view of the intimate — and at that time so recent — connection between the forms of tjpe and of script. It will be remembered that the earliest printing had for its object simply a cheap and expeditious production which could take the place of the old manuscripts, and there is not the slightest doubt that printed matter was often palmed off as the work of a scribe.

The first designers of type based their models on accepted standards of handwriting, and, in cutting the letters, reproduced many details arising solely from the nature of the pen. In conclusion, we may epitomise some of the great secrets of -all caligraphic excellence. It rests on a few general principles, so self-evident as scarcely to need repetition were not the badness of writing an artistic crime of such common occur- rence. Legibility, reticent selection of ornament, a careful choice of tool and material, with study and frank acceptance of the peculiarities of each — these are always to be borne in mind.

Weak and unnecessary excrescences must be avoided, a sense of good construction cultivated ; and the result will be, if not the fine writing of a master-scribe, at least such as would delight him from the hand of a disciple.

Edward F. Morley Fletcher has given the whole of his attention to the development and perfecting of the process, with the result that many of the uncertainties and difficulties that attached to my earlier experiments have been overcome.

In almost every instance Mr. Fletcher has reverted to the actual method of the Japanese. The use of milk for the sizing of the paper, and the use of glycerine and dextrine as a medium for the colours have been abandoned. The present edition of The Harpies is being printed on Japanese paper sized with parchment size, and the colours employed are, with the ex- ception of the black, Newman's tube water-colours mixed with a paste made from the finest rice flour. For the black, " Indian ink," or more correctly Chinese ink, is used.

The Chinese have for cen- turies devoted the utmost care to the production of this pigment and its beauty cannot, I think, be rivalled by any black of European manufacture. The elimination of glycerine from the process has been an improvement of the greatest import- ance. In the first place, it has rendered unneces- sary my previous practice of washing the finished proofs in alcohol ; and in the second place it has removed a great source of danger to the wood blocks, a danger which we have experienced to our cost.

For the blocks having become saturated with glycerine had a constant tendency to absorb moisture. This caused the wood to swell and was apt to throw the blocks considerably out of register. When we first set to work upon this colour- print we had a line block cut by a wood-engraver in the ordinary way upon the cross-section of the box-wood. The rest of the blocks were cut by Mr. Fletcher with a knife upon the plank section of cherry and sycamore wood.

The block cut upon the cross section expanded much more than the others. The result was that the line block was thrown completely out of register, and only a few of the very earliest proofs from this block were fit to be included in the edition. Fletcher then set himself to cut the line block with a knife upon a carefully chosen plank of English cherry, a method of work which I suppose has scarcely been attempted in England since the use of the graver was established a full century ago.

It is impossible to use the graver except upon the cross-section of the wood. In this attempt he has been completely successful ; so that all the blocks are cut in the same manner. It is not easy to over-estimate the advantage of Digitized by Google By permission cf Mr. Fletcher has also discarded the clumsy contrivance of frame wedges and pin points by which the register of the first proofs was obtained. He finds the Japanese method of adjusting the edge of the paper to a notch and Hne cut on the margin of the block more trustworthy and much more expeditious.

Although in all technical matters it seems to be wisest to follow fairly closely the methods of the Japanese, yet as regards the intricate problems of design to which the possibilities of this craft give rise, I am convinced that it would be fatal to accept and adopt as our own the beautiful and consistent scheme that the Japanese have evolved; and I believe that if this art is ever to take root in the West it will be necessary for us to weigh for ourselves each problem and to work out our own solution of the appropriate use of colour, and tone, and shadow, and line.

I am, yours faithfully, John D. It is too large, too comprehensive; and it includes a great many more of his pictures than are at all necessary to show the extent of his capacity. Quite half the canvases which have been brought together reveal a little too obviously that the artist, great as he was on occasions, had many moments when he scarcely succeeded in doing full justice to his powers.

Certainly no useful purpose is served by the presence, in such a memorial exhibition, of anything which is not really representative of him at his best. It is by the few excellent achievements of any art- worker that we would wish to remember him, rather than by the general average of the productions of his whole life, for, after all, his claim to immor- tality depends chiefly upon the evidences he has given of his ability to rise above the level of his contemporaries.

That Lord Leighton was a com- manding figure in the art world the Academy show proves clearly enough, but the cogency of this proof is by no means increased by the bulk of the collection. The fact is, indeed, apparent rather in spite of the industry of the Council in gathering 52 together as many as possible of his pictures and sketches than because in doing so they have done justice to his reputation.

A careful search through the three hundred and twenty-four examples of his work will reveal enough of what is admirable to establish the reality of his position, but during the process of selection much that is calculated to make the judicious grieve will be encountered. Perhaps the most interesting parts of the whole show are the sections devoted to his black-and-white drawings and oil sketches ; and there is much to admire in his digressions into sculpture.

A more valuable, because more consistent, one- man show is that of Mr. Watts's pictures at the New Gallery. He has the merit of being an artist whose whole life has been devoted to the continuous working out of an idea full of great possibilities, and he is remarkable because he has never allowed either the dictates of fashion or the temptations of success to lead him out of the course which he marked out early in his career.

Therefore his work bears well the severe test of collected exhibition, and the record of mapy years of labour tells in his case no tales of concessions that have made his intention less pure or his achievement less earnest He has never failed to regard the pursuit of his ideal as more important tlian the effort to gain popularity, and his position among modem artists, and the recognition which he has gained from the public, have come to him as consequences of his sincere indifference about them.

Few men have existed so consistently for the sake of art alone ; and few men can show so small a number of failures to reach the higher level of technical practice. Both in subject and treat- ment his pictures are apart from almost everything else which is characteristic of the modem school. Their first great quality is that of imagination. They are, to quote his own term, " s rmbols " ex- pressive of intellectual ideas, illustrations of mental views about various problems of existence; and, being s rmbolical in this way, they depend but little upon realism of manner.

They deal, it is true, with human forms, or with details of landscape ; but the way in which the material of them is em- ployed is altogether individual. He carries his intention to deal only with symbols into the details of his pictures, and by stripping his figures of their characteristics as individuals makes them typical of the entire human race.

His whole effort is to be impersonal, and to secure the largest truths by avoiding the trifles that localise and narrow. With what success he has fulfilled this intention we may well judge by this exhibition at the New Gallery. It is a great monument of a greater undertaking. Though the " Landscape Exhibition," opened last month at the Dudley Gallery, contained a comparatively small number of pictures, it was more than usually noteworthy among shows of its class, because of the excellent quality of the work which it contained.

The artists by whose com- bined efforts it was organised — Mr. Allan, Mr. Hill, Mr. Hope McLachlan, Mr. Peppercorn, Mr. Leslie Thomson, and Mr. Waterlow — are all sincere workers, who are justly recognised as among the best painters of open-air subjects whom we have among us at the present time ; and there is between them a certain sym- pathy of view which makes the association of their pictures especially agreeable.

They have a devout manner of looking at Nature, and they paint with a welcome freedom of hand which never degenerates into mere technical display ; so that they are able to realise and express the subtiety and variety of atmospheric colour in a fashion that is often ex- cellent and always worthy of attention.

Besides possessing unusual power in the handling of colour. Baron Rosenkrantz gives evidence of a strong appreciation and sympathy for all that is mystic in religious art. His subject, "The Annunciation," is treated with reverence and feeling ; and although we may say that he follows the traditional lines of the Old Masters, there is a fund of Digitized by Google Studio-Talk originality in this work which gives it a standard peculiarly its own.

The play of colour, upon which the glory of this glass depends, is mainly in the upper half of the four lights, where are poised the seven archangels, Gabriel, Raphael, Anael, Adoniel, Saluthiel, Uriel and Michael, the latter being clad in armour and bearing a shield upon which is represented the expulsion of Adam and Eve from Eden.

The archangels are all arrayed in the colours which tradition attributes to them — the seven colours of the rainbow. Below the heavenly host, amidst a wealth of white lilies, stands the Virgin with head bowed in reverential humility, as if conscious of the vision of the Cross, before which each lily bends in adoration. The whole scheme of colour is most thoughtfully carried out.

The Virgin is clad in a skirt of regal red and a mantle of blue, the hue of which is wonderfully tender and contrasts well against the background of deep sky blue. In his treatment of this last-named colour, the artist has been extraordinarily successful. This beautiful glass, which has now been tested for the first time in English light, having been proved eminently satis- factory, it is to be hoped that other workers in stained glass will follow Baron Rosenkrantz's initia- tive and not fear the prejudices which always inter- fere with the use of a novel material.

With reference to recent discussions in the public Press in which the assertion has been freely made that it is a misuse of terms to describe as a " litho- graph" a drawing made upon transfer paper and transferred directly from the paper to the stone, we have received the following communication from Mr. Way, the well-known lithographer : " There are various kinds of transfer paper, some of which are faced with an artificial and mechanical grain, another has a grain so exactly similar to the surface of a grained stone, that it is well nigh im- possible for an expert to distinguish an impression of a drawing made on it from one made directly on stone, whilst there is yet another kind used by M.

Fantin and occasionally by Mr. Whistler, which depends on the stone to which its drawing is transferred for a grain, being quite thin and smooth 54 in itself. When the drawing is finished, the transfer is damped and laid face downwards on a clean stone and passed through the press ; the paper is then lifted off the stone perfectly bare, leaving the chalk on the stone.

After this its treatment is the same as though drawn directly on the stone. The number of impressions which can be printed from the transferred drawing is no greater than from the direct, and varies according to the character of the work itself. It will thus be seen that the drawing on transfer paper is one and the same process with the direct stone drawing. Now, bearing in mind that it is the artist's hand alone which guides the chalk, whether over transfer paper or stone, and that no other hand has come between the artist and the proof more in the one case than in the other, can the one be less a lithograph than the other?

About four hundred and fifty exhibits were included in the collection con- tributed by members of the Society and outsiders, the Exhibition being an open one. There were also in the show a very interesting number of small drawings which formed a loan section and enabled comparison to be made between the art of yester- day and that of to-day, for the loans included examples of Cox, De Wint, David Roberts, Turner, Muller, William Hunt, Fred.

Walker, and others. Space will permit of only brief reference to a few of the more notable exhibits. These in- cluded a charming landscape. Castle in Spain, by James Paterson ; a picture of distinction and painter- like feeling. Valley of Desolation see opposite page by T. Corsan Morton ; Loch Fyne, by A.

Brown ; a large drawing of a greyhound, entitled The Finish of the Course, by Robert Alexander ; Edwin Alex- ander's exquisite little picture of Turtle Doves ; a strong figure subject. The Ring, by George Henry ; William McTaggart's breezy sea and figure pictures, instinct with life and movement and true colour; the pastoral landscapes by E.

Coventry, R. Allan, R. A few introductory sentences in the catalogue explain the organisers' views and intentions. We are proud, rather, that we should have understood betimes the importance of this movement, at a period when it was risky, even dangerous, to have anything to do with it. The works we are exhibiting are before everything else intended for use. And this fundamental principle will explain the somewhat modest appearance of our productions, which, nevertheless, for the most part have a certain value.

What we seek to attain is artistic honesty, with a due respect for materials,, and the proper utilisation of those objects which form part of our every-day life. His method of treating flowers is extremely clear, and, while simplicity itself, by no means devoid of 55 Digitized by Google Studio-Talk richness.

The decorative tnotifs are strictly logical in their plan, and utilised most happily. Alexandre Charpentier displays a variety of articles, including a bell in silver, gold; and enamel ; 2. Charles Plumet's furniture, which seems quite free from all outside influence.

I could willingly write at length about M. Plumet's display. However fond one may be of foreign art — though, to be sure, the ex- pression is incorrect, for art knows no country — it is gratifying, nevertheless, to see signs of artistic merit at home, for it is a long time since we have been able to congratulate ourselves in connec- tion with modern decorative art.

Plumet's exhibits — his work-tables and tea-tables, his office chairs, his writing-desks, ktageres and frames, and, above all, his book-case — are in the highest sense thoroughly French, in spirit, in character, and in tradition, and the artist who has produced them is deserving of all encouragement M. Precious stones are used for relief in his gold and silver and bronze work with the most satisfactory results. This brief sum- mary of a very interesting Exhibition must, I regret to say, suffice for the present.

I hope to have an oppor- tunity of referring to it later with more minuteness. At the Galerie Laffitte, under the intelligent direction of M. Moline, who is inclining more and more to- wards applied art, M. Seguin has been exhibiting some bonbon boxes and other little works in wood, of most original workmanship. On the natural ground of the woodwork are drawings and coloured decorations of the simplest kind, done by quite a novel process, which is neither stain- ing nor painting, but a sort of flat, dull enamel, very pleasant to the touch.

In shape these little articles are designed on primitive and popu- lar models, as old as the world itself. Seguin's wood- work, M. Moline has also been ex- hibiting three pieces of stoneware by the sculptor, Carabin, who has here been most happily inspired.

The material is natural and beautiful, and not overladen with enamel. The ensemble is altogether excellent both in technique and in colouring, par- ticularly clever being the juxtaposition of the two whites— that of the dress, and that of the birch trees. The artist, whose most celebrated picture, Heiligen Georg "St.

George" , was bought some years ago by the State, now holds a brilliant posi- tion at the Art School in Stuttgart, Wiirttemberg, where he enjoys the highest renown, both as teacher and painter. It is exclusively confined to water- colours, and it is to be hoped that this time the Antwerp public, so long averse to this kind of painting, will at last understand that results quite as satisfactory as those produced by oils may be obtained by this medium. An important series of exhibits of the French school is displayed.

Foremost among these additions is a life-size marble figure by M. Paul Dubois of Brussels, representing a lady of the present day in ball-dress, seated, with a closed fan in her lap see page Paul Dubois, a pupil of M. But his chief and most characteristic successes have been in his treatment of women's dress of to-day. This is no doubt due in a measure to the fact that, as a " society man," he has had constant opportunities of studying the world he knows and lives in.

Born in , Horowitz com- menced his early studies at the Im- perial Academy in Vienna, and passed thence to Munich and Paris, and eventually settled for a few years in Warsaw. Here the first period of his success began. The characteris- tic and pathetic rites which the poor Polish Jews perform in their syna- gogues on high feast days gave him the idea for his picture.

Mourning Rites of the Jews on the Day of the Devastation of Jerusaleniy which created so great a sensation that he soon became the favourite painter of the Polish aristocracy. The artist, however, soon realised that the ele- gant and lively city in which he lived could not afford him that intimate intercourse with the great art centres.

Paul Dubois is just completing one of the columns intended for the decoration of the Brussels Botanical Gardens. It is eight metres high, and the base is adorned with life-size figures representing the four Elements. He is also at work on a delicate piece of low-relief — a standing figure of a woman in the dress of to-day. It has been executed by Mr. Horowitz in a quiet and stately manner. In order to prevent the glare of the vivid scarlet of the uniform weakening the effect of the physiognomy, the artist acted upon the proverb that two negatives make a positive and attenuated the red of the tunic by steeping the whole picture in red.

The background gleams in dark red, and the drapery covering the Digitized by Google Studio-Talk table not shown in the reproduction has a chang- ing reddish hue. Thus the eye of the spectator is not diverted by accessories, but returns always to the vigorously executed physiognomy. The portrait is beautiful, simple, dignified, and discreet in colouring, and it may justly be said that the artist has succeeded in creating a work of art out of an official order, two things which, as a rule, are very difficult to recon- cile.

Two of our younger men of talent, Gallon and Jamefelt, whose works were absent from last year's Exhibition, are showing this year several very interesting canvases, which are worthy of careful attention. The former is remarkable by reason of his fertile and fantastic imagination. He does not appear to be hindered by any constraint, by any rule ; his genius wanders in dreamland and delights in the interpretation of nebulous legends filled with the magic of the ancient Finns.

Gebhard shows a series of landscapes which are interesting by reason of their sunlight effects; and other works worthy of note are those exhibited by Enckell, Simberg, and Count Louis Sparre. In sculpture we have several charming bronzes by Vallgren, in addition to his marble group Consolation, Countess Sparre shows two very handsomely decorated writing-cases as well as the envelope which contained the address to the Emperor on the occasion of his coronation.

Studio Di Angelo Conti. Florence : Fratelli Alinari. Signor Conti considers Bellini and Giorgione to be the two great musicians of painting: Bellini's pictures expressing the diffusion of the magic power of the notes, a serene joy, the peace of far- away horizons; Giorgione, more modern and somewhat Wagnerian, disturbed by passion, often placing the female nude in the foreground of his picture, and in the picture in Casa jiovanelli crowning her with lightning. And in this pas- sion, working through to the calm of the Castelfranco Ma- donna the author finds a faithful reflex of Giorgione's life ; so faithful, indeed, that he takes for the motto of the chapter entitled Giorgione's IPorks the words of Dante : E venni dal martirio a questa pace, and heads the chapter.

Ex cruce, ad lucent. Passing in review Giorgi- one's works, Signor Conti draws a finely thought-out parallel between the Dresden Venus and Leonardo's Gio- conda, lingers lovingly over the Concerto at the Pitti, which, despite Morelli, he con- siders an undoubted Giorgi- one, and over the Festa Cam- pestre at the Louvre ; laying especial stress on the part which music plays in the con- ception and execution of all these pictures, and quoting Vasari's words to prove Gior- gione's enthusiasm for music.

The essence of criticism, he holds, is to interpret the artists not only to the public, but also to himself. To the artist, who in his work obeys a mysterious command of nature, the critic speaks, expounding his mystery to him. He is the poet of love, the great musician of passion ; and he is also the man who, in his misery, sees the new life arise before him, and to it lifts up his aspirations, and all loved forms and all dreams, as though to bathe them in a purifying atmosphere.

Among all the poets of the Renais- sance, he is the one who represents woman as figured forth by turbid passion and as seen by the spirit in serene contemplation ; he is the poet of torment and extravagance, and the seer to whom, in the hour of sad resignation, appears, among the visions of art, a hope of forgetfulness, a promise of glory. There is no doubt, however, that the book, which, by the way, is beautifully printed and illustrated, is a most interesting pro- duct of the newest tendencies of Italian thought.

The Alhambra. By Washington Irving. Joseph Pennell in this new edition of an old friend. Almost every one of its pages contains an illus- tration from the brush or pen of this indefatigable worker. Many of the drawings are good, and some are very good. The only fault we find with them is that they for the most part do not illustrate the text.

They are mere ornaments, and the greater portion of them are not even titled. They may represent portions of the Alhambra or Granada, but some of the sketches would do equally well for scenes in Italy, Greece, or Turkey ; and as there is nothing to indicate to the reader what particular locality they portray he naturally fails to take the interest in them he otherwise would do.

Some of the most important of the drawings are of the decorated courts of the Alhambra, and the elaborate and in- volved patterns upon walls and spandrils have been admirably suggested in line-work by the illustrator. It is a rare talent in a draughtsman, and one much to be commended.

Arnold, Schloss-strasse. Parts I. The size of the publication is large folio, and each number contains an average of five plates, consisting chiefly of lithographs and chromo-lithographs, but with occasional etchings and photogravures. Judg- ing from the parts before us, the work appears to be one of the most notable art publications that have appeared in recent years.

Any single one of these is worth more than the cost of the entire part. Illustrated by Joseph Sattler. Berlin : J. Berlin: J. Stargardt — The publisher may be very heartily congratulated upon the beautiful manner in which the first of these two works is presented. Excellently printed in well designed type up on a fine deckled edged paper, the result is in every respect admirable.

Sattler's numerous full-page illustrations and vignettes are powerful and original, and worthy of the high reputation which he has already acquired. The second work consists of a collection of recent designs by Mr. Sattler for book-plates, title- pages, name-cards, monograms, and of illustrations from books and journals. Sattler's great range of subject is well exemplified in this collection, and those who desire to possess some characteristic examples of his work could not do better than acquire this interesting album.

By permission of the publishers, we give herewith three illustrations selected from the two works. Reliques of Old London, Drawn in lithography by T. With introduction by H. Wheatley, F. London : Bell. Way shows the workaday value of lithography, and its peculiar suitability for certain subjects. The two dozen plates of old buildings and streets herein are most admirably drawn and accurate topographi- cal transcripts of facts, which will prove records of great value to future historians.

That he has infused them with art, and made two dozen pic- tures worth possessing on their own merits, is still more to his credit. It is a matter of regret that less than three hundred copies of this really valuable work have been issued, and that no more are possible, as the drawings have been erased from the stones. Wheatley supplies a delightful introduction and commentary. The book is likely to become one of few treasure-troves of , in the eyes of future collectors.

Possibly it must be attributed to the economy of lithography Digitized by Google Reviews of Recent Publications for small editions, that so sumptuous a book can be issued for a guinea. It is to be hoped that the very worthy task Mr. Way has set himself, of recording fine architecture doomed to be swept away by modern improvements, will not cease with by W.

Bradley, Louis J. Among them are several drawings which are not posters and were never intended to be, notably a drawing made expressly by Mr. There should be material for several others equally interesting. Posters in Miniature. With an introduction by Edward Penfield.

London and New York : John Lane. It includes interesting examples of work for The Studio, which appeared as a supplement to the October Number of In its reproduc- tion in solid black and white this drawing has lost its chief charm. It is, of course, only natural that many designs should suffer in effect when reduced into black and white. Cheret's designs are singularly unfortunate in this respect, and the illus- trations of his work given in this collection are no 65 Digitized by Google Reviews of Recent Publications exception to the general rule.

On the other hand, the work of Mr. Will H. Bradley loses little or not at all ; and it appears evident to us that many of his designs were originally designed for black and white, and have probably not appeared in colour. Be that as it may, they are excellent bits of decora- tion as they are now shown.

Illustrated by W. London : Edwin Arnold. The book is illustrated by W. By Vallery C. London : William Heinemann. Quite two-thirds of this bulky volume are devoted 66 to his sayings or " conversations," and from them it is not difficult to form a correct idea of his per- sonality, and the nature of his inspiration. A large number of his pictures are illustrated by photo- gravure and process blocks, and the pages are plentifully besprinkled with reproductions from his sketches and studies.

Those we are permitted by the courtesy of the publisher to illustrate give an excellent idea of the freedom of his pen lines. The Evergreen, Winter Book. Edinburgh: Patrick Geddes and Colleagues. Several artists of undoubted talent have been introduced to the public for the first time through its pages, at least in the capacity of book illustrators. Perhaps, how- ever, the Evergreen is, after all, of deciduous growth, and although now, in these dark days of winter, apparently dead and lifeless, will as the sun gathers strength put forth fresh leaves and buds and blossoms.

If so, none will more cordially welcome its reawakening. We re- produce by favour of the publishers one of two excellent landscapes which appear in this number by Mr. James Cadenhead, R. No, for the moment the permanent poster pleases me. What advantage would advertisers reap by effacing themselves to make a city decorative? We have seen even a poster not less a poster be- cause it was a fairly beautiful placard.

Please do not suggest permanent pantomimes as well as permanent posters, unless we all adopt openly the profession of clowning as the most serious Art" " I do not want to suggest the impossible," the Lay Figure said. After all, neat level lines are far more readable than grotesque characters squirming about, or uncomfortably festooned as pleated ribbons.

Hey wood Sumner's sgraffito designs, or Mr. Greiffenhagen's Pall Mall poster. The permanent decorations I want to suggest should be even simpler and broader than most of these ; 'flat masses of colour, which a common artisan might apply according to a design supplied. If everybody tried to impress trades- people with the profitable value of good design, a great deal might be done to mend things.

The only activity that is reported is in the decorative branch, there being a fair prospect for orders in mural painting ; the price here, however, taking in account the out- lay for the large canvases, assistants, and time of execution, cannot be said to be A i ; " and that Digitized by Google American Studio - Talk he will accept a loos- er characterization of the condition of af- fairs in the realm of Art. Seriously to state the situation is to ad- mit that conditions are deplorable.

Worst of all, there is evidence that this state of affairs has thrown a damper upon the inspiration of the artists ; for it is not to be gainsaid that the fall Academy was no credit to Amer- ican art. The real gain to be recorded is in the field of mural painting, and the one residue that lies at the bottom of the artist's Pandora's box is the hope that the activity in the decoration of the Congressional Libra- ry, the Boston Public Library, and the several New York hotels may create a demand for decoration that will some day land him a commission.

It is a consummation much to be wished for that an impetus should be given our decorative art ; patronage alone will do this. What was done at the World's Fair under such an incentive was a fair earnest of what we might expect if a universal decorative era be inaugurated ; though the World's Fair, St. It would, in- deed, be difficult to estimate the influence on the public taste which would accrue if every letter received bore an artistic en- graving, and every bill and coin that passed through the public's hands would have, plus its intrinsic value, a sterling qual- ity as a medal or a print.

It is probably true that our postage and money are worse than that of any civil- ized country on the globe, and it is a great pity that the designs of Messrs. Shirlaw, Blash- field, and Low, which are a step in the right direction, should be framed in the conventional gyrations of the ruling machine, that are thor- oughly the antithesis of art. It is to be hoped that our future decorative art movement will not be confined to our walls, but may spread to every surface that is suitable for decoration.

The prize arena has been slowly augmented during recent years ; a notable addition is the Carnegie set of prizes which was given for the first time at Pittsburgh this season. That per- fect equity is rarely attained in the distribution of prizes goes without saying, and it may be that there were other canvases at the Carnegie Ex- hibition that divided honors with those singled out for awards, yet few will dispute the fact that the successful names in the following list repre- sent all that is best in American Art.

Raffaelli of Paris. Eaton was one of the strongest draughts- men that ever put a line on paper. His pen renderings from sculpture carry modelling and val- ues as far as it is possible to go with pure line. The 3'ear saw the decease of a large number of our American ar- tists. Rheinhart, who died September 4th, will not easily be filled. Theodore Robinson, who died April 2d, promised to become a col- orist of exceptional force.

Olin L. Warner, the sculptor, died on August 14th A timely article on this artist appeared in Scribners for October, which did full justice to his ability. It is one of the sad phases of the art life that a great light may sudddenly go out in the sesthetic firmament, but no mundane flash of recognition of its brilliancy accompanies its ex- tinguishing. The exhibition will include works of art, scientific works, and indus- trial and agricultural products of all nations.

Gore of Columbian University, Washington, D. Lathrop may justly be admitted into the company of Messrs. Of a different class of pictures, but none the less fresh and attractive as essays in water-color, are the direct memoranda from nature of foreign or American vistas by Wm. Whittemore, C. Weldon, Wm. Drake, and John Redmond. A veritable allegro of tones pervades the exhibition ; the cheerfulness of water-color — its radiance — has seldom been carried farther.

The Evans prize goes to Irving R. Wiles for his Green Cushion The picture shows great dexterity in the handling of wash, but we con- sider The Golden Galleon , by Ross Turner, more worthy of the prize. The former is the work of the technician, the latter the creation of an artistic temperament. Henry B. Snell sustains his reputation with his Citadel of Quebec , and Walter L.

Palmer, with the lightest touch imaginable, creates a snow scene — A Winter's Dawn 54 — Mr. Whittemore also displays great seriousness in his Portrait 98 , carrying water-color about as far as possible on paper, almost rivalling the amber-like quality of the ivory miniature. Smedley's illustrations are charming colored drawings, but when in the east gallery his Les- son in Botany is hung almost in contiguity to Weldon's Temple Court at Nikko , we see how arbitrary is Mr.

Smedley's color ; and when we compare his Rendezvous with the half-tone in the catalogue, and see how markedly false in value is the print of it — the hair and yellow foliage behind it coming much darker than in the original— we question whether the making of colored drawings for illustration is a praiseworthy practice, since they are neither well adapted to reproduction nor are they true paint- ing in tone.

Thoma lived and worked for thirty years unknown and unnamed by public and critics alike. When at length he found an apostle to proclaim his powers, when the public at last acknowledged his genius, the good fortune came too late in life to have any measurable in- fluence upon his development as an artist. To the best of my knowledge, he does not belong to the class of painters who have suffered actual priva- tions in consequence of the world's lack of charity ; but his shortcomings are partly the outcome of lack of recognition, for, seeing that the world did not court him, a certain spirit of contradiction seems to have seized him, and persuaded him to hold even its just demands in contempt.

This region is famous for its watchmaking industries, and Thoma, as a child of poor people, was at first engaged in the business. He had at an early age disclosed a natural talent for design and colour, in consequence of which he was set to decorating the faces of watches and clocks. During leisure hours he contrived to fill many sketch-books with land- scape studies of the country thereabout, peopling them with the peasants and labourers among whom he lived.

These drawings came by chance to the notice of Schirmer, who was at that time director of the Academy at Karls- ruhe. During the first half of our century Schirmer was at the height of his fame as a landscape painter. Starting from Romanticism, he, under the influence of prolonged Vol. Italian journeys, drifted gradually into the classic style, with its flowing lines and its absence of intimacy and feeling.

Although to-day we do not rate his artistic impulses among the highest, he seems, nevertheless, to have been a good teacher, and was not blind to talent when it came his way, He recognised Thoma's talent at once, secured the Grand Duke of Baden's interest in the youth, and obtained for him admission to the Academy at Karlsruhe.

Thoma remained at this insftitution from to , most of the time under Schirmer. I have never seen paintings of this earlier peripd by him, and do not believe that many are extant. Schir- mer's influence upon Thoma was probably. But this influence must have waned soon, and, indeed, when once beyond the reach of personal impression, there cannot have remained much to attract this vigorous son of the soil, sprung from a thoroughly Teutonic peasant stock, to Schirmer, whose artistic inclinations tended towards colourless, premeditated classicism.

Upon Schirmer's death Thoma came into con- tact with the painter Straschiripha, better known under his assumed name of Canon. Canon's in- spirations were truly second-hand. Among others he imitated Rubens; but he imitated the letter and not the spirit. His colouring, in trying to vie with that of the old master, acquired a lustre which is best characterised by the word "stagey.

The figures are over-modelled, and whether indoors or out, they are seen in a studio light. But fortunately such reminiscences occur seldom, and the less said about his Canon period the better. At the end of the sixties, Thoma visited Diissel- dorf for a short while — short, because he found no one there who could understand his disposition and further him. Then he went to Paris. Those artists were felt to be his real fellows; they too stood aloof from popular art, and what they produced was personal and subjective.

He did not feel per- suaded to imitate any one of them, but he felt that he must, like them, become true to himself. His nature was such as could not profit by outside influence, and if he were to do anything at all, it must be done regardless of painters and public. The presence of a few intimate friends, as well as the close proximity to the country of his birth, attracted him to this town.

He longed to be near the scenery with which his visions of beauty in art had become wedded from early youth. At Frankfort Thoma worked industriously year after year, spending the summer either in the Black Forest or the Spessart, and latterly in the Taunus hills — all of them only a few hours' journey from this town. But he was hardly heard of, and never gained general approbation. The general public could not pass any opinion at all, for jury after jury rejected his pictures, so that they were seldom to be seen.

Art, from being a Cinderella in the household of Oerman culture, gradually rose to a position of superlative importance. In the incessant war between artists and public the former had here- tofore suffered considerably, since they underrated their enemy and treated him only with contempt.

The artist was above arguing with the public ; he was above trying to teach it. The public revenged itself by neglecting him, and forcing him to pro- duce bad work, since it would not buy the good. But now art became a "movement. Waving the banner of naturalism, the phalanx of modern artists swept the public before them, forced it to see as they saw, forced it to own that the artist, and not the public, has a right to determine in what grooves art should proceed.

Naturally, the man who during this period would not enlist in the general uprising, who preferred quietly to wander along his own path, could not hope to attract attention. The single voice of Thoma could not be heard in the din of the battle. He soon refrained from raising it at all ; frequent disappointments brought him to the point of no longer sending his pictures to exhibitions.

But he never ceased in his work. From the moment, however, that the artists had established their victory, the war cry of "naturalism," which had led them on to it, was heard no more. The personal, individual artist could then again enter upon his rights — if he found 8i Digitized by Google Hans Thoma and his IVork any advocate for them. Thoma found such an advocate in the critic Thode, who was at that time director of the Picture Gallery at Frankfort, and is now a professor at the University of Heidelberg.

To my students, I was originates from the Latin word docere which means expected to help offset their pending tuition fees. In to teach. In medieval Europe the doctorate was my local church, I was the perfect person to chair considered a license to teach Latin. The Roman several committees given my level of education Catholic Church had the exclusive right to grant and broad experience.

In the village, an invitation a doctorate during this period. As a mother and wife, the early nineteenth century that the term PhD I needed to nurture the family in a loving and acquired its full meaning as we know it today, submissive manner.

Yet, as a lecturer, I needed following university practice in Germany. Nonetheless, this expectations and demands. Nonetheless, basis. This is the situation in most countries in Africa potential graduates ought to keep in mind the fact south of the Sahara. Given the preceding scenario that an academic doctor must take in a good stock you may probably understand the predicament that of specialized as well as general knowledge.

While most PhD holders face. To achieve this, scholars must expectations lined up for me. To the ordinary strive to acquire experience, knowledge, and good Kenyan, a doctor of Kiswahili meant a moving judgment through continual research and training. Kiswahili dictionary who could virtually give a Armed with these tools, they will be better placed to Kiswahili equivalent to any word in English or a diagnose and treat the society and make it better.

Perseverance I learnt — with her gentle yet firm wriggling within. Endurance bestowed upon me — as I brought her forth to explore the world without. Bewilderment — when I set eyes on this wonder. The storm is over. Her warmth I embrace.

A tiny hand barely clutches my baby finger. I can love. In slumber I watch her. Afraid to blink off — I toss and turn. So deep I can care. I blink twice. I thought it a dream. I pay attention more. The roller coaster begins. Patience I learn. Now she sits. She bubbles — a lot too. I nod and try to ape. A smile so welcoming. I am nourished as well — between sessions of play and meals. The sound of tearing paper brings her to laughter.

One more time. She screams with joy. Uncontrollable elation. Now I laugh to tears. I am a mother. I was not sure that was the right years of work, shall come The Defence. So I took the risk and asked. I was not sure I I think beginning to work on the presentation ahead could pull myself together and make a coherent of time is a wise move.

That means, read the text as presentation that would make sense to people in thoroughly as possible. It is possible that we might attendance. I think my nervousness also stemmed overlook some details if we do not read the text well from that uncertainty that engulfed me right before enough.

That is not cool. Preparing the slides well the presentation. I also became emotional. I in advance and working on time management are remember crying few hours before it happened. I other important tips that helped me. But above all, then cried again just few minutes before the oral the mock defence is such a great opportunity to see presentation began.

You know, I suddenly looked how much prepared you are. Three advantages back and thought of the trajectory anew. The there. First, in terms of time management, it helps realisation that that day is decisive in bringing you see whether you are within the limits of the everything to a conclusion, sad or happy, made me allotted time or not. If you use too much time, then emotional. And also, I thought of my challenges and colleagues and friends give you ideas on how to my loss.

I missed people that deserved to see this work on that. Second, aesthetics of the slides. It was a mixture of all these Our slides have to be as precise and attractive as that made me a bit emotional. But it was well!

At the end Any highlights during the defence? Can you you will have a beautiful set of slides. Third and actually remember the details or it just passed most important one is the feedbacks and questions. I bet most of the questions raised by colleagues at the mock are repeated during the actual I remember most of it.

I think I was more relaxed oral examination. I have benefited from having over. Most of all, as it was a hot summer day, I done it. This is what would happen, if than their mother tongue, supply or even to write the workshop had not taken place — if you want to scientific texts in order to engage in professional understand anything, you might have to refer to the exchanges our comrades.

Although formal learning original German text. Josie went in detail on the weaknesses of grammatical and stylistic texts, we sent in advance, but also gave advice process of writing abstracts and better meaning more accurate and efficient Editor Science in general. African countries they come from. From 8. The 12th grade students In the session on fashion, students gave a minute had invited pupils of a class from the 8th grade as presentation on the African fashion scene in their audience.

At the table, the 12th graders showed the 8th graders and us how to make our own small accessories such as arm bands or necklaces using simple things like thread, beads and safety pins. During the Following the invitation by Ms. From 11 am to mid-day, the team had the occasion to share experiences about Africa with two 8th grade We shared what most of us think about Germany classes, approximately 13 or 14 years old pupils.

Since we had to meet two prefer bicycles to cars, etc. After such a round table classes, the team was divided into two groups led on the questions raised by the pupils, our hosts by Susanne Hacker and Magdalena Krebs. After understood that no one is spared from stereotypes. Do you have a job? Do you have children? A team of volunteers from the organising a lovely little city in Bavaria, welcomed one of the group welcomed them, making sure that they felt at biggest conferences on African literature — the African home.

We made progress and laughed together; we Festival. Many delegates and scholars from all made mistakes and solved them together. We are around the world came to connect and exchange not related by blood, but we are more than a family. At pm everybody is ready colleague asked, does gender matter after all? This gathering is one of the most And if so, why so?

But indeed, does gender really we raise and debate diverse issues ranging between matter?? Current affairs of perfection for candidacy is, apparently, being and our take on them are mostly the dominant free from family related commitments as it eases themes. So following the announcement of career, particularly for emerging academics.

What because of gender roles that distance men from caught her attention was the answer provided to child-rearing, particularly in societies where such the question whether the candidate had a family roles remain rigid. But can a mother leave behind or not. Nonetheless, the traditional academic and lectureships. Junior scholars. This gets even more complicated for Fellows and alumni were given a slot on the second female academics as the burden of negotiating day of the conference in which they organized private life and academic career is more demanding panels which revolved around best practices, on them.

This conundrum is convincingly captured challenges and their visions for the future. Later in the following reflection by a BIGSAS Junior on, the post conference reflection somehow found Fellow who begins by asking: its way back to the lunch seminar. It feels as asking even more complex questions regarding if I have to make a choice between a family and private and public life in relation to gender and my career. Fathers can leave behind babies in mobility. Clearly, one cannot end the debate and order to attend a conference for days or conduct discussion on matters of gender…it goes on!

It is a meal that anyone can afford, although lately with the deteriorating living conditions, it is getting hardly affordable for many people. Usually, Fool is made in small shops or popular restaurants, cooked in a metal pot that has a narrow Fool Musri, served with cheese and bread neck and a wide gouged bottom known as Qidra. The other type is Boush, which means mashing the beans but making it a bit watery by adding some of the water that gathers on the surface of the cooked beans, and adding it to bread cut in small pieces mixed with sesame oil and white cheese; sometimes, according to different preferences, vegetables e.

At breakfast fatoor , which is between 10 has been introduced by the local authorities to and 12 am, Fool is central. In restaurants, in small ban selling Fool in small shops without a food and shops or even in work places, people gather around beverage license issued by the local authorities. It is 16 and 40 Euros. When I read the news, I was known to make people doze off as they feel heavy asking myself whether it is time to grieve for the with languor.

I change where the subject is placed in the sentence. A lot of things were on my mind about the English I speak. Most of my English language country and my university town — the academic life, experiences came from reading novels, watching the people, the foods, transport, shops, language, films, and listening and reading the news. I was name it. One notable aspect I also like to mention is the kind I arrived late due to flight delay and the person of life I found myself living in Bayreuth or Germany that offered to pick me up at the airport had left.

I compare life Everything was in Deutsch and since I could not here with life at home — the foods, the weather, speak Deutsch, I had to ask for help to book the the economy, religion. I also think about the non- train ticket to Bayreuth. A lady and a guy who spoke Germans like the Chinese, Koreans, Indians, English assisted me and ensured that I boarded a Ghanaians, Cameroonians, Kenyans, Turkish, train to my destination.

At the Bayreuth train station, and my fellow country-people from Nigeria. I see I approached another lady for help and even though commonalities in our cultures as well as differences. Yet they me up at the station with her cell phone. I have are living with it. In my thought, I often connect with had similar experiences in Bayreuth while trying to local happenings, international politics, among other get around the city. Indeed, I find the people here issues across the world.

I imagined the future and I wonderful. It is not easy to fully grasp all that I imagined. I must add that I love the way the transport system My language class also taught me some lessons operates and the way people keep to time. I admire about Germany. Initially I was translating the the beauty and life here.

English language to Deutsch in the hope that I will make a good sentence but this did not help much. It was not easy for me to cope with the German case system, the articles and the change in sentence structures when time comes first.

As time progressed I realized I use different an artist from Maputo, materials, with different intents, different effects, Mozambique did a two- different results. More importantly, how do our develop the curating aspect. But the reality in Mozambique is that social commitments that each individual has? Mid- if you want to be an artist, especially an emerging way through her residency, she had a chat with artist, if you want to show your work, you end up BIGSAS Junior Fellow Uchenna Oyali.

Below is an having to do all the work behind it. It also Could you tell us a bit about your background? I trained at the shown, finding the money, or the support because University of Pretoria; I did my BA in Fine Arts it is not always in terms of money, to do the project there and finished in Since then I have been you would like to do.

In a way, my participating last working in Mozambique and since I have been year in the project was an interesting provocation participating in more international projects outside for me professionally because I have been working of the country. I work with different media.

I would at the Kulungwana — Association for Cultural say I am a mixed media artist, but that comes very Development, Maputo, for about two years. I believe and eventually they invited me that is why he bought the idea of to be part of the team that makes an interesting artist to bring here, in the projects happen.

I enjoy working with other people. Of course, I am able Exactly. What do you want to find out? What I have found out is that over I was invited by Dr. Ulf Vierke, the the years I have been working in Director of Iwalewahaus, obviously an intuitive way. What I mean is because of my previous work at that I sometimes have a difficulty Iwalewahaus. I think he enjoyed explaining to people what I am the way I worked and the fact that even thinking.

So I need to work I have this multi-facetedness, and eventually it comes out as especially as an artist because even something. In this case I needed at Iwalewahaus, although I was to make a proposal while I was officially there with the scholarship still in Maputo and not here. I was very lucky to get this Gender and Diversity Programme, office which is usually reserved for without knowing too much about it senior visiting fellows, I guess.

So my reflecting on it and unfortunately it initial proposal was to call the project takes me a while to digest things. In a way I family it would be if it is. From my little experience I feel that from Maputo for two days I know I will go to a new only time can tell what the final result would be and Maputo.

It is the same but always different. I think this is going to also change with time. What I was this helped me. I think I only started understanding really interested in doing, as much as I also accept what I am doing which is I decided to immerse that it is almost an impossible task to do, would myself completely as much as possible in this other be a project where I would be here at BIGSAS, world of BIGSAS that is familiar but still unknown interacting with all of the Junior Fellows and all the until I arrived.

It is an impossible task, I constantly reflecting not only on the Junior Fellows would say, but I think that is what I enjoy about art but also on the context, the environment, and also because as an artist, I am creating a problem and the reality that I do not have the full picture. And I then having to find a solution for it. They are at different why not propose an art that in a way is not finished stages in their research.

Some are in the field, but that is the finished work, if that makes sense. I some are rounding off, some are still trying to managed to feel like I was going somewhere more understand their topics, some are still battling tangible. At every point, about 20 or 30 people are in the field, and those around may not all be in The way I have decided to do it, and I also have got Bayreuth. So it will be difficult to really have a some suggestions from Dr.

That said, do you mind sharing how you have been going about this project? I have just been living, experiencing, talking to people, exchanging because I think conversations are more of exchanging. We exchange so much in these conversations, where we are from, what backgrounds we have, and also how we feel about things, what we think about things.

This is one of the things I find enriching, especially the critical discussions that I have had access to, learning about the research of individual Junior Fellows. In a sense I have been participating in a bit of everything as much as possible. Like you said, in theory there could be a bigger picture, but that bigger picture could only be seen from when something begins and then something ends. This is not what I am going to do now. In a way it is a draft proposal.

From a pool of articles published in print and online German media, this biennial award is given to the entry that best presents a balanced picture of Africa. Helmut Ruppert. We discussed it for a very long From your background you seem to focus more time and in the end they took me there. How long did it take you to write the article? As a freelancer you write for different media outlets. How much research did you do?

Sometimes you propose stories; sometimes The problem was that Chris Nsamba, the founder they ask you for stories. I sent him an email, and he story that has to do with astronomy. I proposed a did not reply. Then I sent his assistant an email, number of topics, some on the States, some on again he did not reply. I found a phone number and German students who work on astronomy.

Basically it was not about writing success. He just did not want to talk to me. In the about Africa but writing about astronomy. I checked that. There were other initiatives and they were obviously smaller. In these previous cases, I am not sure whether they officially reached the level. I understand you have to reach a certain height to be officially in space and, to my knowledge, they did not officially reach the level.

Have these Ugandans reached the level? They reached theirs. They did officially reach it. So that is why they call themselves the first. He was so sceptical about journalists and did I think they have someone from NASA who checks not want me to write about them. In the end, I spent it and hands in some proof. So they are officially recognized by NASA? What was your motivation for writing the article?

I am not sure whether they are recognized by I find it very interesting. Very often you hear about NASA but they have officially reached this level. It Africa as a continent of crisis, as a hopeless place. I is official that they have reached space. Chris, who am sure that this is not true in many ways. I wanted is the leader, is in the States very often. He has to show that something big and important can exist worked for the US Army and I am sure they have even in places where it is hard and where you some guide or maybe he checked it through them.

These people really proved that. I wanted to describe how it is to When you sent your article for this Journalist build up a project like this out of nothing. What was it? We are kind of wondering For me it was quite an interesting research. I had a how much you dug into the past to see what might very interesting and fulfilling stay and I learnt a lot.

I have been done before because we gathered have a very good personal feeling about this article. It was very hard for me to write it and I spent three find it very hard sometimes, sometimes it was very weeks or so going over and over it again because I tiring.

In Uganda there was no moment at all when I found it hard to find the right words. I wanted to give felt uncomfortable or insecure, people did not even give me a strange look even though I stick out. Apart from this Journalist Award, have you got any feedback on this particular article? In this e. Dymitr Ibriszimow L-R asked to re-publish it. It has been published in Austria, in one more German paper and it has been it justice but I also did not want to twist the truth and translated into French, so it was published in France in this case it was very hard.

There is something as well. Which is very rare, it never happened to me about this project. It shows that people obviously really liked the story. Are you still in touch with them? Yes, yes. This is very interesting. It is quite nice how the story is spreading. What does it tell us about Do you plan on going back or visiting? I would want to and really it is the next point on There are quite a lot of pieces about crisis in Africa, my list and I really want to go back to East Africa.

As a journalist who has written about Africa, But I think the fact that so many newspapers Uganda to be specific, what would be your approached me shows that people want to read advice to journalists? The goal of this Journalist I am not an expert in this field and so I guess Prize is actually to spread a different view of Africa.

My advice would be that journalists talk to the people. Some journalists go to places and they already have their story in mind. They know what they want to write. Sometimes they can even write the story without even doing the research. My advice would be to talk to people, listen to them, and if you have to change the story change it, as it was in my case. At the end it was less a story about science and more a story about human perceptions. And for people who are inexperienced on the topic I would say try to dig and find something that is different and not produce the same old stories.

There is more to find. They are really happy to have a piece that shows I feel very honoured. Very often the juries of journalist something different and I think it gets better. The prizes consist of journalists and journalists look at media are really trying to improve and not focus articles in a different way. The fact that these juries on the same old story.

There are also some books are not journalists but experts in their fields, that recently about the middle class in Africa which is they did not look for any formal reason but the fact something that very few people know about, but that they liked the article, it is worth a lot, more than the fact that this kind of books and articles are any prize that has been awarded by journalists. For becoming more I think is very fine.

November wurde ich in Anwesen- heit des Bayerischen Kultusministers Dr. Meine Dissertation gibt aus vergleichender Perspektive einen Ein- blick in die Praktiken von Frauenbewegungen im gesellschaftlichen und politischen Umfeld Kenias und Brasiliens. Living library is a kind of library that is books were very excited and even happier when the neither passive nor only waiting for you to enter and family started asking about their cultures.

Finally, leave without a single word of goodbye. It is one in their existence was noticed. The conversation and knowledge exchanging went on until pm in the In the lovely city of Bayreuth on 28 March afternoon and did not seem to end anytime soon. The books were happy that eventually their presence and cultural Unfortunately, not many such people visited the knowledge were recognized.

The family left with living library on that date. Were they not attractive? To prevent this unwelcomed feeling to grow any further, one book As you can see, this is a happy ending. The living from Mexico started talking to her companions. She library has been living on although at this moment, talked about life, the culture bestowed on her from it is still sleeping and waiting for the books to come Mexico. A book from Benin also began his story back with more enchanting stories and knowledge from his culture, and so did those from Germany and if the living library is fortunate enough, the and Thailand.

The space was then filled with lively books may also bring other books to the library. The unwelcomed feeling was long forgotten. Yet, on a second thought, is it really alright to keep the books to oneself? Perhaps not. One day, the It seemed that their enthusiasm towards cultures living library reconsidered the situation and finally attracted the attention of passers-by.

While they made a crucial decision. Can you guess what the were talking to one another, a family of three from living library decided? The living library of Bayreuth is to travel the world. Let the books wander around not lonely anymore. They all have been in relations. Instead, they could establish other living libraries, connecting their cultural knowledge with one another and constituting cultural global connections.

A couple of days or weeks of leaving family behind to pursue a PhD abroad. Here, I give you have always known. How do you deal with such a To my wife: situation? As usually Justice Arthur happens, we become philosophers when we find ourselves in difficult situations.

Below are some Oh! Though we seemed so far apart Justice Arthur Little did we know then That our paths would cross Long distance relationships are extremely difficult to freshen up, especially where it involves children. A caring soul, so strong yet so sweet In my case, it has never been easy having to leave My battles you fought my wife and my children in Ghana to assume a self- My love to have, me to treat imposed bachelor status in Germany. Sometimes, As the best to cross your path I have to stay up to make sure homework on the other side Ghana is sorted before attending to You promised never to let go my own needs.

Some weeks after the wedding and I was between Nigeria and Bayreuth and make Nigeria back in Bayreuth…alone… back to life as a look like next door. But at times, I find expressing bachelor…a married bachelor, a life of loneliness myself on paper some fissure for the turmoil within. I and…loneliness. JP: Wie ist die Idee gekommen, Schiedsrichter zu werden? Welche Etappen hast du bestanden, bis du heute internationaler Schiedsrichter geworden bist?

So habe ich mit dem Pfeifen angefangen, weil ich mich nicht vom Basketball trennen wollte. Sowohl bei den Damen So ist es. Wenn ja, in wie fern? MS: Ja, schon! So gekommen. Deutschland positiv bestimmt. Einfach anmelden und in einem Verein Zuschauer bei den Medi Bayreuth Heimspielen Mitglied sein, dann ging es schnell los! Bundesliga oder bei Brose Baskets Heimspielen Euroleague. JP: Aber, du bist Doktorand, Mbaye!

Dazu noch den Mut haben, seine Ziele zu erreichen und immer voll Gas geben, damit alles gut klappt. Xam te xaamee say xarit ak say noon! JP: Besteht noch Kontakt mit den Heimatkollegen? Seine Freunde und Feinde kennen und anerkennen! Immer hilfsbereit sein! JP: Was ist das Geheimnis deiner Lebensfreude?

Gibt es vielleicht ein Wort oder ein Motto, das dein Leben bestimmt? Kannst du das bitte in deiner Muttersprache Wolof sagen? The look on the faces of the university president, professors and fellow students said it all. And indeed, Dr.

Beyond support for African Studies and research in Bayreuth, he had visited Accra a fortnight earlier and held discussions with his Ghanaian counterparts on key health and sanitation themes including the management of electronic waste i.

So when the Minister, Dr. Additionally, Dr. Such African reggae musical rhythms delivered by exclusions come from barriers created by society. Ras Mackinzeph. Yaounde, Cameroon. The objective of the lecture cum musical night was to highlight the challenges So why do people stigmatize and discriminate faced by persons with disabilities PWDs in against persons with disabilities?

For Ras Cameroon as well as the prospects of their social Mackinzeph the root cause of the problem can progress. Ras Mackinzeph noted that disability is be traced to false cultural or religious beliefs, as often defined as the functional limitation of a person, prevalent in Cameroon. But apart from superstition, as a result of physical or sensory impairment.

In the psychological process of social categorization disability studies, this is often referred to as the based on physical appearance and the unjust medical model of disability. How can the challenges faced by persons with disabilities be overcome? Breaking the barriers The UN conception is often referred to as the social faced by PWDs requires three approaches from model of disability which can be distinguished from different actors.

For the first approach, Ras the medical notion. Through his mechanical talents and skills, he has been able to develop a special tricycle for use by people with mobility impairment in Cameroon. This requires doing away with false beliefs and notions regarding the capabilities of PWDs.

During the musical session, both Senior and Junior The second strategy requires interventions from Fellows danced their hearts out in response to public state and private institutions in terms of the various reggae rhythms dished out by Ras policies and other forms of interventions that would Mackinzeph.

It was a lively night by all standards. Ulf Vierke. Eric Anchimbe, He emphasized that through the cultivation of the Deputy Gender and Diversity Representative self-confidence he has been able to develop his moderated the programme. By the close of the capacity to become the head of the Philosophy night, not only did the participants enjoy the music Department of his School. Not only that but also but also they learnt that disability is not inability. Here are some impressions of the evening.

The aim of the outreach was programme dedicated to students with an immigrant to inform and obtain feedback from the Munich and multicultural background. This was Bayreuth. The heavily attended Studies, University of Bayreuth. This task is more so crucial with African students and other societies of the so-called Global South that have often been represented officer Susanne Hacker, and Hanane Amghar, with a certain measure of bias in the media and a PhD student in Intercultural German Studies, other avenues of information exchange.

Apart University of Bayreuth. It was another opportunity from being a good example of the collaboration to share the experiences of BIGSAS school and in African Studies institutions in Bayreuth, the trip how it constituted a learning avenue both for the demonstrated the necessity of connecting and students and the members of the BIGSAS team sharing visions of academic institutions with the on the diversity of Africa.

Further discussions society at large. In the case of chieftaincy enthronement, it is emptied into a horn-made cup for the fon to drink as a sign of acceptance and blessings. Sometimes, the wine is served from his cup to the cups of elders and everyone present without exception, symbolizing unity with the people. In funeral ceremonies, palm wine is served to entertain during the wake-keeping as well as a form of negotiation between families of the deceased.

Palm wine It is white and contains natural yeast that makes is also consumed at home on ordinary days and it sour and alcoholic with time by changing the sold at drinking spots commonly known as mbuh original sweetness at the time of extraction.

The bar in times of relation. It is usually served with liquid is common in many parts of Africa, Asia and food as a drink for refreshment. In some parts of Africa, palm wine symbolizes unity and is often consumed In a traditional marriage ceremony, palm wine is from one pot. In addition to the above functions of palm wine, it is served with kolanuts in cases of conflict reconciliation between two parties, fortification, appreciation, medication, etc.

Moreover, it is a valuable source of economy in the peripheries because it involves several businessmen and -women from production to final consumption. It operates as a chain that links people involved in the same line of business from neighbouring ethnic groups.

This chain is composed of the palm wine tapper, the retailer and the public. Many people operate small palm wine bars in the quarters, markets and village squares to add up on the family income. A lot of people consume palm wine because they believe it contains certain nutrients that are valuable to the human system provided the liquid is fresh enough, that it has not lost its original taste or mixed with other liquids.

It contains vitamins in Drinking palm wine during a social gathering lower proportion, sucrose and potassium. The exudates can be classified as rich of acceptance and unity. In the case of childbirth, sources of nutrients that are needed for men. It is the German government sponsored prize awarded part of my job to do research, understand societal to international students with outstanding academic phenomena and publish the findings. Therefore, records and impressive social or intercultural to be partly recognized for this alongside social engagements.

Furthermore, clutched this much coveted award over the years. I am grateful to the University of Bayreuth DAAD Prize in and graduate school for nominating me for the respectively, reflect on their experiences award. The support and encouragement of my receiving the prize.

Arnim a foreign student is bestowed annually. As the Heinemann, to anything on my desk. Indeed, process requires a nomination, it is difficult to having almost forgotten of the nomination for the reflect on why I was selected — particularly because DAAD Prize some months earlier, the joy that there are several other outstanding doctoral fellows followed the news led to my suspension of every who could have equally been selected.

However, task for the rest of the evening. Yet, it soon came I can share with you the feeling of receiving such down to rescheduling my numerous activities: a an award. Despite a pleasant surprise. However, when the initial joy subsided the main drama began. In fact, when the invitation letter for the award ceremony came, I read it in a haste, partially conceiving it as a dinner with the University President. The truth is that my German language skills were not adequate to comprehend the section on awards ceremony.

I also waived the offer to come The awardee Matthew Sabbi with Prof. Dymitr Ibriszimow, picked me opportunities and external relations up from my apartment on Friday, 20 November, that it became clear that awards would be given. I award celebrations could no longer wait.

A week immediately began to pant; I was going to be alone after the awards, my friends and colleagues joined with nobody to support me. This was actually the me in the kitchen of Bussardweg 39 for a grand first time the awards were given at a dinner. That made all of us. To be honest, though Most importantly, I came to appreciate the it was a cold winter night, I could already feel the importance of the award afterwards when my sweat on my face and under my shirt.

Frankly, I supervisor asked for a photo of the event and when could barely follow what the Vice-President Prof. The rigorous nomination front of the audience because all that while I was process and the eventual election by the University struggling to adjust my posture in front of members Senate added to its significance.

Indeed, the award of the University Senate. I even forgot to hand has entered the scholarship and awards section over my camera to someone for personal photos of my CV. My sincere thanks to all friends and of this special event. Despite the drama, the post- happen! Besides the normal academic discussions and debates, there were two interesting but no less important observations and encounters. It was quite evident from a couple of interactions with some of the migrants especially those from sub-Saharan Africa The participants of the AEGIS Summer School that they already felt their anticipated dream of economic fortunes and their It was particularly interesting and an honour to reality were miles apart, while the persistent have been selected among a few students from uncertainties over their stay in Europe remained a German Universities to share our research results constant nightmare.

The trip to Cagliari, Italy, was particularly academics, the LGBT question remains an intriguing for my colleague Serawit, who was also ambivalent one but it was more so fascinating for invited. Indeed, Cagliari, the capital of Sardinia is Summer School participants who were multi-cultural a major tourist attraction and a Summer School in outlook. Some of the participants had joined the on the island meant the prospect of combining Summer School directly from African universities, academic work and networking with fun i.

So between the 23 lively in national politics and social life. There were three myths Over all, given the responses levels of encounter with to LGBT issues in Africa, it was less the LGBT community: surprising that most of the questions interactive roundtable were directed towards African discussion and insights participants but it was also notable by scholars from that the responses still echoed the Edinburgh and Roskilde already known ambivalences and that who research gay none of them particularly appeared to legislations in Uganda hold an advocacy position.

With insightful; and finally a lunch sponsored by the all these experiences, we left Cagliari with some LGBT community was awesome! For instance, just the mere fact of being a BIGSAS Junior Fellow made it possible for me to decipher the diverse destinations and cultures that make Africa, at little cost. Germany for me became that great melting pot that taught me greater tolerance and accommodation of varying hues and shades of opinions that stem from the great cultural mosaic that constitutes it.

I also experienced intellectual growth in leaps and bounds! I had been on an In terms of self- hour overnight flight from Frankfurt to Mombasa discovery, living having successfully defended my doctoral thesis in Bayreuth gave just three days earlier. Whereas I had travelled to and now look at Germany all alone with a single suitcase, I was now it with completely returning accompanied by my wife who had joined new eyes!

Indeed, me, our twins Minwa and Mich, our then unborn son in the words of Koby, and six heavy suitcases between us! In the short time of my return to Kenya I have felt the sense of contributing meaningfully by taking part in consultancies and most recently teaching at the university. I have also received offers to make contributions at intellectual conferences and I cannot help but feel a deep sense of thirst and hunger for intellectuals in a developing country.

I still fit in effortlessly even after many there is and there will be greater need for individuals years abroad! It is in this enjoy many things we previously took for granted. Like in all societies, negatives of course abound! But from where I stand, I see and experience more positives than negatives!

Irreecha the aim of bringing doctoral students together is celebrated at the sacred lake of Hora Arsedi, and giving them the opportunity to share and Oromia region of Ethiopia, where state politicians discuss their ongoing projects, thereby facilitating avail themselves and make speeches that motivate exchange beyond disciplinary boundaries. The the participants to support the regime in its effort workshop, which took place on 5 February , to develop the country.

They also use the site to was specifically organized by PhD candidates preach peace, unity and conviviality. Karin Birkner Germanistik , Prof. Dymitr Ibriszimow Afrikanistik II. As to complete the list of beliefs, Idris Simon Riahi Prof. Grounding on the metaphorical target domain of witchcraft is the cognitive semantic theory and methods, the shaped after nosological notions in the source study described the meanings of religious lexemes domain.

Maroua Northern Cameroon. It provided a qualitative are well aware of the structural variation between analysis of the interactional structure of preaching the register of the Bible and the register they speak in the Christian Churches in the German-speaking when they comment on the Bible and that they use context.

Her ongoing doctoral research the aim of reformulation strategies which do not only help which is to fill lacking and detailed description of them to consolidate the understanding but also the sermon as communicative genre uses a mixed consequently develop their competence in both methodology ranging from videographical class varieties. Examples of this include the participation in the Post SV indoor tournament against established teams such as Post SV and Roter Stern Leipzig where an 8th place finish was achieved , a successful game against a selected Bayreuth police team, as well as regular attendanc- es at social events such as the Bayreuther Interkul- turelle Wochen, and a friendly match organized by church congregations in Bayreuth and Nuremberg, which took place in the Middle Franconian capital.

Friends, fans and families come together to play football and party. Founded in on the initiative of Dr. Apart from being a mainstay of the annual Wilde Liga, a comprehen- sive football league which consists of a number of different teams who compete on various levels, the orange and green of BIGSAS FC have also been involved in a number of games outside of the for- Through the years, the team has successfully been led by Dr.

In most cases, players left the team due to the completion of their studies, while others missed out due to the long periods of field work. Furthermore, pre- and post-game get-togethers which usually involved the collective cooking and eating of food as well as game analyses formed the backbone of any match. This was encouraged through the participation on match days itself, either by playing or supporting.

As it is our tradition, BIGSAS FC will again aim at top spot in their division this year and hope for the continued support of players, fans, and the administration. BIGSAS JFs are also working on a system already existing ones were started with the aim to to alert the journalists when something important is help to create a more realistic and differentiated happening in Africa that might be of interest for the image of the African continent in public discourse.

Bayreuth public. In the course of their new programme to Besigiroha and pp.

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