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-and the portraj>al of a seal, is the property of McClelland and. Stewart-Bantam Limiled, 25 Hollinger Road, Toronto, Ontario. M4B 3G2. to each year take Christmas dinner with Brian, just coming in from a fishing trip, and 'the News contains a statement of Prof.

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This book is created as a final project advised by Dr. Olmanson for TEAC You are reading the lecture notes of the R labs for the Machine learning. The main text of the book was written by Brian Pullan, who drew on the many lengthy interviews conducted by Michele Abendstern with academics, administrators. In the words of Brian McHale, “World-boundaries having been overrun in this way Forster wrote in Aspects of the Novel,-- his Cambridge Lectures of QUICKSILVER X MEN DAYS OF FUTURE PAST SCENE HD TORRENT Please agree any damaged vision search. Email Required, Moving Houses. Then I is defined me after four items, and setbacks going through a clear the assigned the program.

This book is a springboard into the world of R without having to become a full-fledged programmer or possess abundant knowledge in other programming languages. This book guides you through the most common challenges in empirical research in the Social Sciences and offers practical and efficient solutions.

Each chapter is dedicated to a common task we have to achieve to answer our research questions. In addition, it provides plenty of exercises and in-depth case studies based on actual data. These data are being collected as part of potential plans to eradicate invasive pike from the area, which were identified in by the Alaska Dept.

This is an evolving document […] These lecture notes are in an early stage of development. Stay tuned. Introduction to geostatistics with R in Polish. A book about deeply customizing Shiny app for production. Until , strangely though, there was nearly zero comprehensive resources collecting the scattered wisdom and experience of thousands of Shiny users and developers into a single definitive resource.

Depending on the direction of the main ones involved, the fault plane assumes a typical spatial arrangement, and the two fault blocks will move relative displacement with different kinematics. This website contains lessons and labs to help you code linear regression in either Stata or R.

This website houses all the information you need learn the basics of coding linear regression in Stata and R. It will not contain all the information taught in class, but will allow you to bridge that knowledge into running linear regressions on your own. This is a week course with 9 labs.

Al parecer, los datos se encuentran en el sitio de Transparencia del gobierno. A technical guide for mapping rooftop solar potential in a city using open source data and software. Use the chapters of the reader to guide your work through each project.

This textbook presents an introduction to Bayesian reasoning and methods […] Statistics is the science of learning from data. Statistics involves We will assume some familiarity with many of these aspects, and we will focus on the items in italics. That is, we will focus on statistical inference, the process of using data analysis to draw conclusions about a population or process beyond the existing data. Notes for Statistical Inference. This book provides basic material for students seeking to learn statistics in an R environment, […] This skills pack introduces statistical concepts to beginners within the framework of R.

Examples of analyses and R code are provided as well. Ejemplo 0. This is a textbook for teaching a first introduction to data science. You can read the web version of the book on this site. Click a section in the table of contents on the left side of the page to navigate to it. If you are on a mobile device, you may need to open the table of contents first by clicking the menu button on the top left of the page.

KULeuven R tutorial for marketing students […] In this tutorial, we will explore R as a tool to analyse and visualise data. R is a statistical programming language that has rapidly gained popularity in many scientific fields. There are no buttons to click. R is run entirely by typing commands into a text interface. This may seem daunting, but hopefully by the end of this tutorial you will see how R can help you to do better statistical analysis. STM Topic 1 […] Where are we headed in this subject?

In this subject, we will be learning how to Make Sense of Data. One of the most important tools we can use to do so is Statistics. What is Statistics? Statistics allows us to make sense of data. It involves collecting, describing, and analysing data, and sometimes drawing conclusions from data.

In a nutshell, the above definition describes exactly what we will be doing throughout this subject. We will be learning about how to collect data. Once we have a data set, how can we then make sense of it? This is an introduction to using mixed models in R. It covers the most common techniques employed, with demonstration primarily via the lme4 package. Discussion includes extensions into generalized mixed models, Bayesian approaches, and realms beyond.

How to do comparative methods for evolution and ecology […] This book was created as part of my PhyloMeth class, which focuses on sensibly using and developing comparative methods. A gitbook-style website authored for BS Step by Step I assembles in one place the tutorials I have been using to teach and apply to practice simple, multiple and hierarchical linear models.

This file is a working document and will be regularly updated with reviews and new contents. Add description […] Outline of preface preliminary and incomplete. June 21, Motivation was to teach more statistics and quantitative methods to economics majors.

I found that combining statistics topics with finance applications was very effective and popular. Early classes used Microsoft Excel as the main software tool R was not around then. Experience with Excel was, and still is, in high demand by employers in the finance industry. However, Excel is not a good tool for doing statistics.

STM Topic 4 […] In this topic we will learn more about the purpose of sampling, along with how we can use samples to infer things about the population from which a sample was taken. For now, the main characteristic of a population we will focus on will be the the mean. However, many of the concepts we will learn about here are applicable to other characteristics as well. We will begin with an overview of the purpose of sampling followed by a discussion of the sample mean.

Next, the remarkable Central Limit Theorem will be introduced and discussed. To mitigate and adapt to these changes, there is a need to understand their myriad impacts on human and natural systems. The Lecture is divided in the following Chapters, and each Chapter contains several themes.

The Lectures will take place in the room MR on Thursday from 12h15 to 14h For those students who cannot attend the lectures, a recording will be available on Mediaserver. Seminars will take place on Thursday from 16h15 to 18h00 in the room MS For those students who cannot attend the seminars, a recording will be available on Mediaserver. Data Analysis in Medicine and Health using R […] We write this book to help new R users who have limited programming and statistical background.

The main audience for this book will be medical epidemiologists, public health researchers and analysts and post-graduate students in public health and epidemiology. The book aims to help R users to quickly able to make plots, explore data and to perform regression analysis using the R programming language in RStudio IDE setting. Along these notes we will see how to effectively implement the statistical methods presented in the lectures.

The exposition we will follow is based on learning by analyzing datasets and real-case studies, always with the help of statistical software. While doing so, we will illustrate the key insights of some multivariate techniques and the adequate use of advanced statistical software. Hello, Website! Please also note that simple R Markdown sites are not based on blogdown. They are probably good for websites with only a few Rmd documents.

Research Guide […] Doing research is like baking: it requires structure you need to follow a series of steps , but it also requires passion and some magic. It requires Deep Work, and a clear commitment to produce something that helps us understand the world a little bit better. In this Guide, I will introduce some of the elements that will help you produce a great research project. Just as with a baking book, I will introduce some of the elements and stages you need to follow in producing your research paper.

But it is important that you also feel free to include your own magic. Notes cobbled together from books, online classes, etc. They contain mistakes, are poorly organized, and are sloppy on fundamentals. Use at your own risk. The focus of this handbook is statistical inference, including population estimates, group comparisons, and regression modeling. Not included here: probability, machine learning, text mining, survey analysis, or survival analysis.

The Lectures will take place over Zoom on Thursdays from 12h to 14h. Lectures will consist on a presentation of the contents of the class. During the class, there will be some exercises. The focus of this handbook is probability, including random variables and probability distributions. Not included here: statistics, machine learning, text mining, survey analysis, or survival analysis. The HTML output format for this example is bookdown::gitbook, [ I will assign sections for you to read before coming to class.

This will give us time in class to address common misconceptions and ask new questions. I recommend you read the corresponding material in Stock and Watson after you have read the chapter in this companion text and either before or after our in-class Bookdown Template […] This book is a bookdown template to be used for various projects of the Rethink Priorities survey team. The main goal of this book is to serve as a skeleton project that can be copied and used in other projects.

Additionally, it contains some chapters that serve as tutorials for different features of this bookdown format. Please add yourself to the list below to acknowledge your contributions. Willem Sleegers: willem rethinkpriorities. Pricing Danish Mortgage Bonds using Machine learning for estimation […] I want to thank a few people.

This is an example of a thesis setup to use the reed thesis document class for LaTeX and the R bookdown package, in general. You can have a dedication here if you wish. These notes cover our three hours together as we learn about using R for data analysis with R Studio. We are to spend our time tonight learning about R, R Markdown, and the developer environment that puts these tools together, R Studio.

How do these tools fit together? The Landscape Genetics Distributed Graduate Seminar DGS is an international collaboration that provides a unique opportunity for interdisciplinary graduate training. This is the code book accompanying the slides of predictive and prescriptive analytics F The theory will only be revised briefly in this book.

The goal of this book is to give you an example of most of the concepts seen in class in the statistical programming language R. This is a gentle introduction to R and the basic usage of some tidyverse packages dplyr, tidyr, ggplot2, forcats, stringr for data manipulation and visualization. The latter can be found online Wickham and Grolemund Samarbeidspartnere er Universitetet i Bergen og Stanford University. Further suppose the cholesterol levels of 72 patients were measured, and we wanted to ascertain: Is the average cholesterol level of patients from this population different from 5.

This is a graduate-level seminar on economic statecraft. The intention of maintaining this website is to facilitate my teaching and to keep track of the resources I use. If you see any errors or have suggestions, please do let me know. The syllabus of this class can be downloaded here: EconomicStatecraft. This is a graduate-level seminar on Chinese foreign policy. The syllabus of this class can be downloaded here: CFP. STM Topic 10 […] In the previous topic, we looked at hypothesis tests for proportions, namely, the one and two sample test of proportions.

In this topic, we will be considering another type of test that can be used to address hypotheses regarding proportions that come about by studying categorical variables: the Chi-squared test. There are many different types of Chi-squared tests. In this topic, we will be looking specifically at the Chi-squared goodness of fit test and the Chi-squared test of independence. This is the final report summary of spatial statistics analysis.

January 31, Set coalash dataset as an example Figure 1. D is the region with values. Many kinds of exploratory statistics can be applied here to test stationarity, local stationarity and so on. Then inference of unknown locations can be made. This guide does not replace any of the books used in the course nor the lecture notes. However, it will help you to go through it, so you can understand and critically think about the material that we will cover in the course.

The best way to contact me is through email. I am usually very fast at responding to my students, but plan for a hour delay in my response during the weekdays. Este libro analiza los resultados obtenidos por My Final College Paper […] I want to thank a few people. This is an outline of the overall course structure for MKTG We may face a lot of data challenges but the marketing team and the analytics team work in silos. STM Topic 7 […] In the previous topic, we learnt how to test for differences in means between two independent groups via the independent samples t -test.

This was a situation where the independent variable was a categorical variable with only two categories. What happens when we want to test for differences in means between two or more independent groups? STM Topic 6 […] Having learnt in the previous topic about Hypothesis Testing via the one-sample t -test, this week we will extend our knowledge to two more types of t -tests: the two-sample t -test for independent samples, and the two-sample t -test for dependent paired samples.

Throughout this topic, we will refer to these tests as the independent samples t -test and the paired t -test respectively. Here is a short video that walks you through the process. A guide to learning R for the purpose of conducting quantitative research. This covers collecting and cleaning data, and visualizing it in graphs and maps. R is a programming language that is well-suited to the type of work frequently done in criminology - taking messy data and turning it into useful information.

While R is a useful tool for many fields of study, this book focuses on the skills criminologists should know and uses crime data for the example data sets. This workbook is a basic introduction to data management with R and SQL. For the content of this book, you will need to have access to R, RStudio, and a relational database. For comments, suggestions, errors, and typos, please email us at: kokkodis bc. For each section, if you run into issues, please leave a comment with the problems you are having in the comments section at the bottom of the page.

Todos los errores son su responsabilidad. Background, methods and exercises for using R for environmental data science. Applies exploratory data analysis methods and tidyverse approaches in R, and includes contributed chapters presenting research applications, with associated data and code packages. This booklet is intended for students of BIO at the University of Exeter […] In this document, you will find some activities to support what you have learned in your reading, audio-visual materials etc.

A book about how to use R for the meta-analysis of ecological data […] We created this book as a guide to conducting meta-analysis using ecological data in R. Ecologists are increasingly turning to evidence synthesis i. There are helpful books that provide the theory behind meta-research in ecology Koricheva, Gurevitch, and Mengersen R is a great programming language especially designed for statistical analysis and data visualisation.

It will be a step-by-step path; at the end you will have the basic R knowledge for analysing financial time series. Throughout the semester, as we cover different aspects of data science, supplementary documents such as this one will be used to enhance your learning experience. This document contains material to support your learning as you complete Computer Labs 1B to 4B of the Data Science module.

We recommend that you take a few minutes to browse the different sections in this document just click on the sections in the menu bar to your left. Practical Data Skills […] The purpose of this book is to provide practical data science skills to managers and business analysts. The focus is helping the reader develop pragmatic skills they can apply within their organizations to extract value from data.

This book will not provide a complete and rigorous overview of data science, statistics, or computer programming, but it will help the reader quickly learn how to process and analyze data in the R programming language. Project RISE is a mixed-methods project designed to leverage the power of ritual for understanding the motivation and performance of community health workers in Bihar.

This is a collection of data science tools and techniques commonly used at January Advisors. The book is meant primarily for internal use, e. The book is designed primarily for data science and R beginners who want to learn exploratory data analysis EDA through visualization in a practical way by working on actual data related to a real problem. We continue to stress these themes in the book; EDA, visualization, actual data, and learning by solving problems learnbydoing.

We envisage that the book will only have an online version because of the dynamic nature of the problems related to Covid and the increasing data. The Covid pandemic should be of concern to all. STM Topic 3 […] In this topic, we will consider the concept of probability. We will then consider both continuous and discrete random variables, and then introduce perhaps the most famous probability distribution of all: The Normal Distribution.

Menggunakan analisis data sebagai penunjang utama pengambilan keputusan dan pengembangan bisnis. Buku ini ditulis untuk menuangkan ide berbagi pengetahuan berdasarkan hasil belajar, pengalaman melakukan pekerjaan dan penelitian di beberapa bidang bisnis sebagai konsultan analisis data, maupun karyawan di sebuah perusahaan. Tujuan utama dari buku ini adalah untuk membantu Anda yang ingin belajar analisis data menggunakan R melalui pendekatan bisnis ataupun Anda yang ingin belajar bahasa pemrograman R dari dasar.

Contoh kasus yang disajikan diharapkan dapat memperdalam pemahaman pembaca mengenai materi dari sisi permasalahan bisnis yang dapat diselesaikan. STM Topic 2 […] Having learnt how to present data in the last topic, in this topic our focus will be on describing data, or, descriptive statistics. We will be learning how to describe data using both numerical and graphical measures.

Lab materials, examples, and other data for use in Dr. In general I have a few major goals for you in this course: This is intended to be a general course covering common methods in crime analysis, some of the tools that go along with it, and a theory-based discussion of how to best implement strategies for crime prevention. This book is suitable for an introductory course of data analytics to help students understand some main statistical learning models, such as linear regression, logistic regression, tree models and random forests, ensemble learning, sparse learning, principal component analysis, kernel methods including the support vector machine and kernel regression, etc.

Data science practice is a process that should be told as a story, rather than a one-time implementation of one single model. This process is a main focus of this book, with many course materials about exploratory data analysis, residual analysis, and flowcharts to develop and validate models and data pipelines.

This book contains case studies and course notes for STAT , Introduction to Data Modeling, at the University of Wisconsin, including instruction for many tidyverse packages […] Statistics is a first course in data science and statistical modeling at the University of Wisconsin - Madison. The course aims to enable you, the student in the course, to gain insight into real-world problems from messy data using methods of data science.

These notes chart an initial path for you to gain the knowledge and skills needed to become a data scientist. Kemampuan menyajikan informasi dan insight hasil analisis data adalah kompetensi penting pada era kini dan masa depan. Teknik visualisasi data yang efektif akan memberikan dampak signifikan pada keberhasilan komunikasi dengan target audiens. Tidak hanya mempermudah pengenalan pola pada data, visualisasi data juga dapat memperkuat pesan yang ingin disampaikan.

Buku ini membahas berbagai cara visualisasi data yang disesuaikan dengan tujuan dan ketersediaan data, serta memberikan beberapa hal esensial dalam menyiapkan bahan visualisasi data. My goal is to show how to fit these models in R and visualize their results. This is also, ver much, a work in progress.

Survey design and analysis using R. The following resources are also helpful. Only simple random sample survey designs can be analyzed with with normal statistical test functions - complex survey designs require special treatment. Text as Data Methods in R - M. It is part of the M. At the moment, the course is expected to take place via in-person meetings every Tuesday am in room BIND. Collection of interactive teaching techniques. The full credits can be found at the end of this ebook.

The Epi R Handbook is an R reference manual for applied epidemiology and public health. We write in our spare time to offer this resource to the community. Your encouragement and feedback is most welcome: We offer live R training from instructors with decades of applied epidemiology experience - email us to discuss. This is a machine learning textbook for dealing with imbalanced datasets […] This is a sample book written in Markdown. This book is a guidebook for medical data management in R.

This is a book for anyone who are interested in manipulating and processing medical data. This book introduces different aspects of data management and how to implement these in R using RStudio. While there are a plethora of great R books covering a variety of data management topics, I hope this book would serve as a self-learning guide to avoid roadblocks and frustrations before becoming fully comfortable with using R.

Introduction to R course, as used on MSc Health Data Science […] As a health data scientist, it is vitally important that you have a firm understanding of a statistical programming language, and that you can work in a clear, reproducible fashion. This course will provide you with the baseline skills to use R for health data science. Introduce the basics of programming in R a key skill for a health data scientist. Introduce good practices of workflows and reproducibility in data science.

Humans are simultaneously exposed to a large number of environmental hazards. To allow a more accurate identification of the risks associated with environmental exposures and developing more targeted public health interventions, it is crucial that population-based studies account for the complexity of such exposures as environmental mixtures.

This poses several analytic challenges and often requires the use of extensions of standard regression approaches or more flexible techinques for high-dimensional data. This document presents an extended version of the class material that was used in an introductory two-weeks course on statistical approaches for environmental mixtures. The main challanges and limitations of standard regression techniques are outlined, and recent methodological developments are introduced in a rigorous yet non-theoretical way.

The course was designed for students and postdocs in environmental health with basic preliminary knoweldge on linear and logistic regression models. Sources and code examples to conduct a thorough analysis in R are also included. The C4DS R lectures are designed for students who already have a programming background thanks to the first part of the C4DS course dedicated to Python. Documentation could be found here. Das Dokument kann hier kostenlos gelesen werden. This research paper aims at modelling customer portfolio, churn and customer value.

This is a handbook to help new and existing users find, process and analyse historical newspaper data, using the programming language R, and its IDE R-Studio […] In and I worked at the British Library as a Curator of Newspaper Data. It was an experimental position, conceived on the premise that the data generated by newspaper digitisation projects, in this case the Heritage Made Digital project, deserves its own curatorial role and set of practices.

It was an fun time to work on such a project. This a brief overview of how to use biology for inform decision making for environmental grand challenges we face globally. The goal of this course is to examine global grand challenges that we face through the lens of solutions from science. Science can be magical because it provides us with incredible outcomes in so many domains of the human endeavour.

Here, we work to find the magic spells from science for the environment to promote the well-being of people and the planet. A gentle introduction to data science in R. This online book is structured as a series of walk-through lessons in R that will have you doing real data science in no time. It covers both the core ideas of data science as well as the concrete software skills that will help you translate those ideas into practice.

En la medida de lo posible el documento trabaja con datos de Ecuador. My Coding Index assembles and organizes in one place all the relevant code and online resources I have been using to teach RStudio and in my professional practice.

I laboratori di R sono strutturati per studenti che non hanno uno specifico background in tema di programmazione. This is an introduction to Bloomberg […] This is an introduction to using Bloomberg. It is a work in progress.

Please let me know if you seen any typos, errors or omissions. You can also contribute to this project on github. It was last built on This is a note using the bookdown package to write a book. The output format for this is bookdown::gitbook.

This e-book contains an introduction to qualitative and quantitative research methods that may be useful for genetic counseling students to learn. This e-book contains the materials that we will use during our four weeks together. We will then discuss sampling considerations external vailidity. Surrogates: a new graduate level textbook on topics lying at the interface between machine learning, spatial statistics, computer simulation, meta-modeling i. Gaussian process emphasis facilitates flexible nonparametric and nonlinear modeling, with applications to uncertainty quantification, sensitivity analysis, calibration of computer models to field data, sequential design and blackbox optimization under uncertainty.

Presentation targets numerically competent scientists in the engineering, physical, and biological sciences. Treatment includes historical perspective and canonical examples, but primarily concentrates on modern statistical methods, computation and implementation in R at modern scale. Rmarkdown facilitates a fully reproducible tour complete with motivation from, application to, and illustration with, compelling real-data examples.

This book provide excerpts from that book that may be useful to more than those just within the McConkey lab. This book is a collection for pre-processing and visualizing scripts for single cell milti-omics data. The data is downsampled from a real dataset.

Their focus is on the Drosophila genome. My focus is on humans. This manual has been written for a undergraduate course entitled Principle of Genetic analysis BIOL at Cal State University, East Bay but can be used by anyone wanting to learn more about gene structure and function. The first 6 rows are shown below. The dataset incudes both: What do we notice about the relationship between price and cut?

Is this surprising? Next, we examine a histogram, displaying price, cut, and carat size. How does the information in this plot help explain the surprising result we saw in the boxplot? Next, we use a R Ewha Sunbok Lee […] Hi everyone, welcome to the course. This is the introduction to R course at Ewha Womans University. R is a great programming language for statistical analysis and data science.

I hope you enjoy R in this course and find many useful applications for your own field. In this lecture note, this font represents R commands, variable names, and package names. Babylonians, Egyptians, Romans etc. Censuses are usually regarded as error-free data sources leading to statistics with highest accuracy. Time series analysis using R. I organized them into a section on working with a tsibble time series tibble chapter 1 , a section on data exploration chapter 2 , and then four sections on models.

The labs will be mirrored quite closely to stay true to the original material. This book was written in RStudio using bookdown. This version of the book was built with R version 4. The bookdown package can be installed from CRAN or Github: Remember each Rmd file contains one and only one chapter, and a chapter is defined by the first-level heading.

I intend to - using the dataset - build several supervised machine learning classifiers to predict the status of cancer patients. I will then evaluate the performance of these models using the content taught in week 9; Furthermore, if possible, I think I will also try to perform GO term This is a set of at-home practical exercises for experimental design. There are two sets of three exercises provided to explore principles for better experiments.

This is a simple book to support the practical, at-home learning associated with experimental design. Life is an experiment. Individually and collectively. We experiment everyday. Introduction to Statistics Stat 1. There are two ways to think about this: As a field, Statistics provides tools for scientists, practitioners, and laypeople to better understand data.

You may find yourself using knowledge from this course in a research lab, while reading a research report, or even while watching the news! This book presents new demographic measures of adolescent fertility from a long term perspective. This is a field paper using the bookdown package. Is this relationship existed universally or just context-dependent?

Are these models in literature replicable or reproducible? Part I reviews the related literature and tries to cover the main theories and research in this field. Textbook prototype. You may use it as a template, as you write code for your assignments. If you want to work with R from your own computer, you can install it for free using the directions below.

This will allow you to work on your assignments whenever and wherever you would like. Written in Bengali, this book is an introductory textbook. STM Topic 11 […] When designing a new study, a very useful exercise to carry out is that of determining an appropriate sample size. This is an important step in helping to ensure that the study achieves the outcomes it set out to achieve.

As you may be able to imagine, if the sample size is not big enough, then the results of the study may not be strong enough to draw any significant or meaningful conclusions. On the other hand, increasing the sample size can come at a cost in many situations.

A gentle introduction to nature hacks for a better life. Nature deficit disorder is an experiential hypothesis for behavioral ecology. It proposes that humans spending too little time outdoors are more likely to experience behavioral challenges and reductions in cognition and mental well-being.

This book summarises the tasks that you should work through during the workshops. The first three workshops are planned to be in-person with the instructor s present. During those in-person workshops there will be time to complete at least some of the tasks. Later in the week there are remote self-study sessions where you work at your own pace and the Introduction to R for Econometrics […] This is a short introduction to R to go with the first year econometrics courses at the Tinbergen Institute.

It is aimed at people who are relatively new to R, or programming in general. Notas de clase de Bodega de datos […] Este libro fue construido para ayudar a entender algunas herramientas de Bodega de datos. E-book em desenvolvimento. It intend to be a comprehensive go-through on the analysis performed during this research.

Any software code include in this book is licensed under the term of GNU I have to precise which one … and can be copied, reused, modified, and distributed under the term of the same license. However, the data analyzed here was acquired at a great cost of human and funding effort and his at least in some part the propriety of the Aquatel lab of UQAR. This is an example of using the bookdown package to write a book. We think the R system has many benefits for social work research.

R has become the flagship computing environment for many areas of science and has great appeal because it is free and open-access. Due romanzi per il corso di Letteratura italiana contemporanea […] I testi raccolti in queste pagine sono formattati in HTML e si adattano alla dimensione dello schermo. However, unlike in natural science, it is not easy to conduct randomized experiments in social science because of ethical and practical reasons.

A brief introduction to statistical thinking in biostatistics supported by the R programming language. Adventure time! Well, the mathematical part is up to you, but this is an adventure. This set of learning materials is a guide developed to support you in better developing critical thinking using statistics. Critical thinking very generally is a mode of thinking that is self-directed and evidence based Facionie Introduction to Computational Social Science […] This seminar is intended as a theoretical and methodological introduction to computational social science.

Each week covers substantive and theoretical material and is associated with a technical lab. You will need to bring your laptops to each class. In the technical labs you will learn how to analyze network data in R. This e-book contains all of the technical labs in the order that we cover them. Methods for Network Analysis […] This credit hour seminar is intended as a theoretical and methodological introduction to social network analysis.

Though network analysis is an interdisciplinary endeavor, its roots can be found in classical anthropology and sociology. Network analysis focuses on patterns of relations between actors. Both relations and actors can be defined in many ways, depending on the substantive area of inquiry. This is a draft. At this point, the book has not been extensively reviewed and is being provided as is. Revisions are in progress.

Beginners with little background in statistics and econometrics often have a hard time understanding the benefits of having programming skills for learning and applying Econometrics. Stock and Mark W. Watson It gives a gentle introduction to the essentials of R programming and guides students in implementing the empirical applications presented throughout the textbook using the newly aquired skills.

This is supported by interactive programming exercises generated with DataCamp Light and integration of interactive visualizations of central concepts which are based on the flexible JavaScript library D3. The English communications skills and tasks and more for success at SGU. The purpose behind the questionnaire was to learn—from students—two different types of information: a how important they perceive certain communications skills to be and b how frequently they do certain tasks in order to be successful during their time at SGU.

Draft […] Welcome to the FairBank case! FairBank explores issues involved in the detection, diagnosis, and mitigation of disparities or biases that can stem from model-based, data-driven, approaches to decision-making. The case is fictional and intended for teaching purposes only. Please start by reading the Study guide. The case is accompanied by an interactive App that enables you to trace through the analysis underlying the case exhibits and perform what-if analyses to explore how data and modeling issues might affect the disparities discussed in the case.

Ini harusnya miring, dan ini harusnya tebel. Ini adalah list: Dan ini adalah hyperlink. Machine Learning for Biostatistics […] So far, most of the methods that we have seen with the exception of KNN assume an additive effect of the predictors. By the end of this module you should be able to: The dataset triceps is available in the MultiKink package. You may install. The data are derived from an anthropometric study of females under 50 years in three Gambian villages in West Africa.

Which NFL scores have never happened? There have been over 16, games of professional American Football. There have been some rule changes to the points scoring system over that time, but clearly some scores are going to be more likely than others. These are my personal notes related to unsupervised machine learning techniques. Unsupervised machine learning searches for structure in unlabeled data data without a response variable.

The goal of unsupervised learning is clustering into homogenous subgroups, and dimensionality reduction. This book aims at sharing knowledge about Equity Derivatives. It has been written within a pedagogical approach alongside the development of an exotic options pricer.

Dentro de los compromisos ambientales asumidos, Minera Andina del Sol S. Este documento presenta un desglose de la estructura de Tareas WBS y costos CBS para las actividades de desmantelamiento de la mina Veladero como parte del plan de Cierre de las Fases This a brief introduction to scientific synthesis tools that use meta-analyses and systematic reviews to advance science and inform decision making.

Scientific synthesis of all academic evidence from data to papers can promote evidence-informed decision making. Every contemporary discipline has some capacity to support and benefit from synthesis tools. Here, we develop a set of heuristics to support innovation and leverage evidence.

There will be exercises and challenge questions for you to code, and opportunities for you to elaborate on the results of these activities. After these warm-up exercises, please go back to your lecture platform and review the assessed R-practical tests. We argue that the increasingly computational Some history: I use R a lot for work and for side projects.

Historically my code has been stored in random Rpubs documents, medium articles, and a bunch of. Rmd files on my hardrive. Occasionally I feel like doing things Mac: Windows: The following In this lecture note, this font represents R commands, Machine Learning for Biostatistics […] In this module we will talk about model selection and regularisation methods also called penalisation methods , namely, ridge and lasso. We will start with classical algorithms for model selection, such as the best subset selection and stepwise backward and forward selection.

Then we introduce the idea of bias-variance trade-off and the motivation for ridge regression. Finally, we will talk about Lasso regression and some of its extensions. By the end of this module you should be able to: The dataset fat is available in the library faraway. This is an opportunity to demonstrate your data manipulation skills and commercial awareness.

Complete an analysis using a tool of your choice and write a short report with findings, charts and recommendations to Mollie. Amongst other things, you may want to consider: Evolution over time of key metrics Growth of different customer segments ROI of the marketing channels leads originate from Distribution: Implement CLV based playbook Cohort Development: Channel The attribution of a client seems to come from a single point, e.

Channel 1. Dit is het handboek dat gebruikt wordt in de cursus olod bedrijfsprocessen van de AP - Hogeschool te Antwerpen. Het olod Bedrijfsprocessen behandelt de bedrijfsprocessen in een kleine onderneming. In een onderneming worden samenhangende activiteiten gegroepeerd in processen. In dit olod verwerf je inzicht in de samenstellende componenten van een bedrijfs proces.

Now using some journals in International Relation field to explain. In morden era, all domestic history are global history. Even before it. Q1: China first meet Greece Culture? Machine Learning for Biostatistics […] This module will cover methods to explore non-linear effects of numerical predictors on the outcome. The legend goes that when recording the iron content of spinach, he inadvertently moved the decimal point one space to the right.

This caused a ten-fold increase in the reported iron content of the leafy green. The error was left unchallenged until This book walks through the ten most important statistical theorems as highlighted by Jeffrey Wooldridge, presenting intuiitions, proofs, and applications. As a political scientist with applied statistics training, this list caught my attention because it contains many of the theorems I see used in methods papers, but which I typically glaze over for lack of understanding.

In other words, we should say what we can say, not what we want to say. The module carries 2. To replicate, understand and adapt the code used in this module, download R and RStudio. In this module, you will use several R packages. You have to install these packages on your computer, using install.

You only have to install packages once on your computer. Only after installing new versions of R, you have to install packages again. This is a test of publishing my copyrighted content to Bookdown. Since , MATTOO has been educating anyone who wants to listen about the shocking reality of trafficking all around them.

Segmentation Data This Excel document is focused on products and segments, it contains limited information on facilities, and is best used in conjunction with this report. Each product will appear multiple times within this document, one time for each facility that produced it, and one time for each segment that it falls into.

Franchise Hockey Manager 6 Saves in R […] This tutorial hopes to teach you how to use R to parse and aggregate multiple saves from Franchise Hockey Manager 6, for instance when running multiple tests on the same season of Simulation Hockey League. It has been updated to show the teams and Casino Lines for S Two things are needed from FHM for this tutorial to work. A tldr is found in chapter 4. This is a book recording the daily study during my PhD […] I began my studies in plant genetics with the ambition to work on deleterious mutations.

My interests concentrate mainly on the application of quantitative genetics and computational biology to associate agriculturally important phenotypes. And now I am devoting myself to the study on biological effect of deleterious mutations on wheat genome. As a member of the VMap 2. Buku ini disusun dengan pendekatan Learning by Doing, dimana mahasiswa dapat mempraktekkan secara langsung setiap kode R yang ada, dengan data yang tersedia.

These are lecture notes for the marketing channel and intelligence course. This book is designed to provide students, analysts, and practitioners with approaches to understand various marketing channels, and to make meaningful marketing decisions based on insights obtained from the data. The book covers various areas in the marketing industry, from examining different channels and interactions between different channels, to launch marketing campaigns via specific channels, to managing multi-channel relationships with marketing intelligence.

This course provides an overview of skills needed for reproducible research and open science using the statistical programming language R. Students will learn about data visualisation, data tidying and wrangling, archiving, iteration and functions, probability and data simulations, general linear models, and reproducible workflows. Learning is reinforced through weekly assignments that involve working with different types of data.

Publishing a book in Egyptology typically requires several years of intensive research, writing, and revisions. Once a volume is finally complete, often the cost is prohibitive for most audiences besides specialized academic libraries. This book in progress is an experiment in how one might more quickly use existing templates and online publishing tools to make an open-source book accessible to all readers both during and after its creation, so scholars and the interested public can take advantage of any insights sooner.

Corrections or updated references can be made quickly and easily. This contains materials for the Advanced R course of the doctoral school of Grenoble, France. He is also the founder and former organizer of the Grenoble R user group. A collection of future scenarios based on different themes and scenario archetypes. El primer paso de este curso es el tener el ambiente adecuado en su computadora. En general no se necesita un equipo con gran poder y de hecho ni se necesita un equipo pues siempre podemos usar el servidor cloud de R.

En fin, lo primero es asegurarse de tener R instalado. Lo podemos bajar de la siguiente liga. El segundo paso es bajar R Studio. Not having an Nvidia graphics card means I cannot use the GPU version of TensorFlow the backend, or computational engine for Keras so we will not be demonstrating this way of accelerating computations.

Chances are this chapter may also be useful if your machine runs Linux, but things may be entirely different on Windows. It has a strong emphasis on examples from western Canada. This is document walks through the project workflow. This package allows anyone to apply the hierarchical Bayesian models used to estimate status and trends from the North American Breeding Bird Survey.

The package also lets the user generate a suite of alternative metrics using the existing model output from the annual CWS analyses. Everyone is welcome! These sections are in currently in progress: The data dictionary used to generate this applet is here. This is the class note for lecture The binomial option pricing model values options using an iterative approach utilizing multiple periods to value American options.

With the model, there are two possible outcomes with each iteration—a move up or a move down that follow a binomial tree. In other words, the financial markets will not allow you to get a risk-free profit. A simple example of arbitrage is when a foreign currency is traded on two markets with different exchange rates.

Suppose that you can exchange euros to pounds in London at a rate of e1. Then it would be possible to get a guaranteed profit by exchanging one pound for e1. R Training Manual […] This course aims to teach some of the key concepts to help learners use R as a tool to inform data-driven decision-making for epidemiological analysis. Many of the examples in this course are from the Epidemiologist R handbook, a resource developed by epidemiologists working across the world. The handbook is in invaluable resource for all levels of R users but the focus for this course will be on the early learning concepts most frequently used by epidemiologists.

The mapping content has been provided by the afrimapr project. This is the class note for recitation 7. In this plot, the simulated line is heavily influenced by the extreme value at around 9, One way to make linear models more robust is to use a different distance measure. For example, instead of root-mean-squared distance, you could use mean-absolute distance: We can see that the simulated line is less affected by the extreme value.

This is the class note for recitation 6. This book is an effort to connect his work with the Bayesian paradigm. This is the class note for lecture 8 on July This is class note for recitation 5. Question: which stock is the most risky? Even though an investment in either stock separately involves risk, we have reduced the overall risk to nil by splitting the investment between the two stocks.

Learn basic R coding and build elegant plots to support your analysis during any size Six Sigma projetc. All rights reserved. This book was written in RStudio version 1. All examples and exercises have been created by the author unless explicitly stated otherwise. This is the class note for lecture 7. Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion1 of returns for a given security or market index.

In most cases, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. Volatility is often measured as either the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. Hardcopies can be bougth from CRC Press or other popular on-line booksellers.

The on-line version of the book can be read here, and it is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4. To cite the book in publications, please use: E. Krainski et al. Boca Raton, FL. Similarity between local BOLD signal and task design. Classification or similarity analysis. This is the class note for recitation 4.

Then the sample means converge to the distributional mean as the number of observations increase. This is the class note for lecture 6. Very comprehensive. I particularly liked the differences between adult and pediatric presentations, also the different courses of the disease. I particularly liked the remarks on Lyme disease as I live in Europe. I would have liked more comments regarding the bacteria carrying the disease B. I particularly liked the remarks concerning the antibiotic selection and the differential diagnosis.

I particularly liked the remarks concerning the specific populations and the bacteria they're most concerned with. I particularly liked the remarks concerning the taste of penicillin and the clear explanation concerning the Jones criteria. I particularly liked the explanation of the management which makes it very clear in a stepwise fashion. I particularly liked that the teacher focussed on the most common etiologies in this instance.

Clear explanations as usual. I particularly liked the conclusion at the end in the shape of "Take home messages". I've seen several preseptal cellulitis in children but the attendings could never explain this disease as well as it has been done in this lecture. Thumbs up! I particularly liked the Nigrovic Rules and the considerations regarding the long-term complications.

I particularly liked the differences regarding the age with the key features highlighted and the comments regarding the CSF values. Crystal-clear on all levels. It gives me the confidence to have an informed opinion on Pertussis next time it comes in the differential diagnosis. Really helps to dispel all the myths around M. It does really seems like management is going to change in the upcoming years regarding this disease.

Excellent lecture as usual from a master teacher. The most important points about management are highlighted. Otherwise, I particularly liked the part about which vaccinations, why they are preventing pneumonia.

Very well stressed I think. I'm going to use this when discussing with parents. One of the best lecture, along those on Asthma and bronchiolitis. Tons of pearls and clear explanations for decision-making for the practicing clinicians. I particularly liked the emphasis on the differential diagnostic, the remarks regarding the humidity and cold and the modality of the treatment. Also the signs that the child is sufficiently treated.

Excellent lecture, I particularly liked the recommandation to avoid labs and blood cultures, a good reminder in a "less is more" approach. I particularly appreciated the emphasis on the clinical presentation and the radiological finding. Excellent lecture with emphasis on most important clinical signs and clear categorization regarding management. Clinical appearance, differential diagnosis, treatments, clinical pearls. This lecture contains the relevant and practical information. Excellent overview of the different types of the disease.

It allows to wrap one's understanding around the types. Crystal clear and focused on the most important aspect for a pediatrics resident. I also liked that Dr. Alverson expanded on the secondary effects of steroids. I liked the fact that the teacher focussed on the most important differential diagnosis and the criteria between tubular and glomeural causes were clear.

Nephrology is a topic that is often obscured by the teachers in this field I met. This is not the case in this lecture. Let there be light ;. Great lecture. Everything is great about this lecture: the questions and the reasons them, the differential diagnosis, the labs and imaging. Explanations are clear and after that lecture I feel more confident to diagnose possible causes of hematuria. It's very useful for the differential diagnosis. Very clear differences between the two conditions.

I enjoyed the overview and the clear explanations of the different diseases. I would have liked more details concerning the clinical exam. However this lecture does serve the purpose of giving the student a clear view of the most common paediatric diseases. As usual, Dr. Alverson is able to bring to the lecture the most relevant elements needed for the daily practice.

Excellent lecture, clear and I always appreciate when the teacher's experience gets mixed in with the lecture. Also, advice to families are well-structured, easy to remember. Very good explanation of the steps and mindset to have in case of seizures. Clear explanation of the 3 anti-seizure medication. It's the first time I hear that epilepsy is an exclusion diagnosis but it makes sense. It's better clinical reasoning in this way.

Clear classification between small, large and tension. Clear risk factors of spontaneous PNE. All in all, I learned new things to appropriately diagnose and manage PNE. Very good lecture. This allowed me to transfer my knowledge from the adult medicine to pediatrics regarding PE. However, I would have liked more info regarding the link with DVT and the clinical aspects of PE in children like clinical cases maybe and also a part about management.

That being said I do understand it is not a typical pediatrics disease as it can be in adult medicine. One of the best lecture. It makes many things clear. However, I feel there is one part that is missing: the compensation of fluid loss based on the estimated dehydration state. Everything else is great and much better info that I encountered before. Very clear explanation of how the lab values change according to the level of dehydration.

I was not aware until today about this controversy. I am not sure all of my colleagues are aware of it either. I particularly liked all the comments about the antibiotics and the duration of antibiotherapy in children. However, I would have liked to see the different sensitivities and specifities per analysis leuco-esterase, blood, etc. All in all, I learned new things, thanks! This is one of the best lecture from Dr.

Alverson, along the ones such as Asthma and bronchiolitis. It is very well explained and also contains clinical pearls that I'm quite sure my colleagues are not aware of. This lecture will help me to better diagnose this disease and better explain it to parents. I'm looking forward to use this knowledge in real life.

Great explanation of key concepts, classification and management. Makes it much easier to remember. Good overview of vomiting and diarrhoea with the definitions, etiologies and the most frequent diagnoses. Good explanation of the questions to ask to the parents.

Good overview of diarrhoea with the definitions, etiologies and the most frequent diagnoses. I also like that lecturer explain things in comment. Overall good-looking doctor that I can see is experienced. The essential information, well structured and presented. It will help me with the parents to provide better advice. Concise, informative, clear. Perfect lecture for a resident in the emergency hospital setting. As usual: clear, concise and comprehensive.

I put 4 stars, because contrary to lectures about Asthma or Bronchiolitis, I felt that the experience of the teacher did not enrich this lecture as much as it did in the previous above. Otherwise, it is still top-notch learning material. Another great lecture, where all the following are covered: - Myths: oxygen, etc. I learned tons. It shows that the instructor masters the topic and is able to give a clear and easy-to-understand picture. I now feel much more confident for these situations and more able to integrate the local guidelines now that I understand better the general concepts.

High yield facts, great for closed book examinations. Loved the bonus mnemonic! Thank you for your work! Excellent lecture, thank you very much! I particularly liked the parts where you share your personal experience and opinion: the glue, suturing and the sedation parts. Clear and concise as usual. All your lectures are excellent and it shows that you deeply care for children. I'm reviewing this one in particular because this is a difficult topic and I think you excelled in the choice of topics, the tone and advice for young paediatricians.

I'm talking about the whole "child abuse and neglect" lectures. I'm going to review more. It's brief, concise and Dr. Alverson clearly explains the benefits of breastfeeding as well as give some problems to be aware of.

Another thing that I liked was that he highlights the role skin to skin bond and the importance to start breast feeding as soon as possible even if the mother doesn't have much milk in the first hours. Based on our terms and conditions it is not possible to create a Lecturio account without an email address.

Lecturio requires a valid email address in order to inform you about important changes and updates e. Got it! Start Now. Toggle navigation. To Your Curriculum. Login Start Now. Home Pediatrics. Pediatrics by Brian Alverson, MD, Hetal Verma, MD Pediatrics is the branch of medicine that focuses on the integral diagnosis and management of illnesses that affect newborns, infants, young children, preteens, and adolescents until the age of 18 years.

Course Details. Videos Duration h Quiz questions Concept Pages Get Premium. You're currently in preview mode. Create your free account to save your progress and access more questions. Chronic Apophyseal Injury. The apophysis is a secondary ossification center found on non-weight-bearing segments of bones. It is the site of ligament or tendon insertion and is involved in the peripheral growth of bones.

These secondary growth centers are generally open during childhood and do not close until early adulthood. Chronic apophyseal injury traction apophysitis almost always happens in adolescent athletes during periods of growth. Types of chronic apophyseal injury include Sever disease posterior calcaneal apophysitis , Osgood-Schlatter disease tibial tuberosity apophysitis , little league elbow medial epicondyle apophysitis , and Sinding-Larsen-Johansson syndrome inferior patella apophysitis.

Diagnosis is generally made clinically. Chronic apophyseal injuries are generally treated with a conservative approach and rarely require surgical intervention. Pediatric gastrointestinal abnormalities. In the pediatric population, imaging often plays a critical diagnostic role, especially in diagnosing congenital anomalies. In children, CT scans are avoided if at all possible due to the high risk of radiation exposure.

In addition, both CT and especially MRI require children to hold still for significant periods of time and often require sedation to complete the study. For these reasons, plain radiography often with contrast , fluoroscopy, and ultrasound are the imaging modalities of choice for most suspected cases involving GI pathology.

Some conditions that can be diagnosed using imaging include hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, necrotizing enterocolitis, midgut malrotation with or without volvulus, intestinal atresia intussusception, appendicitis, Hirschsprung disease, mesenteric lymphadenitis, and obstructions of the biliary tree. Pediatric chest abnormalities. Chest abnormalities are a common presenting pathology of the pediatric population.

Imaging modalities aid in differentiating the causes of respiratory distress in infants and finding the underlying infectious, traumatic, or congenital disorder. Computed tomography CT is a useful adjunctive modality in the pediatric population when conventional radiography fails to adequately characterize pathology. Given the common occurrence with many cardiac or vascular anomalies, specific protocols are necessary to highlight potentially abnormal anatomical structures.

Pediatric chest imaging is a multimodality process at most centers used to help answer clinical questions and adequately care for individuals. Congenital infections are acquired in utero or during passage through the birth canal at birth and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality for the infant.

The foot is the terminal portion of the lower limb, whose primary function is to bear weight and facilitate locomotion. The foot comprises 26 bones, including the tarsal bones, metatarsal bones, and phalanges. The bones of the foot form longitudinal and transverse arches and are supported by various muscles, ligaments, and tendons that allow for flexibility as well as dynamic and static support. The foot has 3 primary arches and multiple ligaments that are essential to its structure.

The arches are important in absorbing weight during standing, walking, and running and the ability to adapt to uneven terrain during locomotion. Cholestasis in Neonates and Young Infants. Cholestasis in neonates and young infants is conjugated hyperbilirubinemia in the 1st 3 months of life due to impaired bile excretion. Biliary tract malformations involving the gallbladder and bile duct are grouped into cystic and noncystic obliterative cholangiopathies, the most common of which is biliary atresia.

Less common causes include the genetic Alagille syndrome, infectious causes, and metabolic disorders. Clinical presentation is with obstructive jaundice. Ultrasonography and MRCP are useful diagnostic tools, and a prenatal diagnosis is sometimes made with ultrasonography.

Cystic causes frequently require surgery to correct the defect and allow for normal child growth. Liver transplantation may be needed in cases of biliary atresia with portal hypertension. Liver and Biliary Tract Imaging. The hepatobiliary system is composed of the liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts within the liver and external to the liver. The liver produces bile, which is a fluid made of cholesterol, phospholipids, conjugated bilirubin, bile salts, electrolytes, and water.

Bile, which assists in digestion and helps eliminate waste products, is stored in the gallbladder. The hepatobiliary system can be affected by infections, cysts, solid masses, ischemia, and mechanical flow obstruction, which mandate the presence of reliable imaging tests to determine the etiology.

The methods that evaluate structural changes in the liver and biliary tract include ultrasonography, CT scan, and MRI including magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. Additionally, cholescintigraphy, a functional imaging study, helps identify gallbladder pathology by tracking the biliary pathway. Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas NHLs are a diverse group of hematologic malignancies that are clonal proliferative disorders of mature or progenitor B cells, T cells, or natural killer NK cells.

Most pediatric cases are aggressive and high-grade but curable ; in adults, low-grade subtypes are more common. Like Hodgkin lymphoma, which has distinct pathologic features and treatments, NHL often presents with constitutional signs of fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Clinical features include lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly, but some individuals present with extranodal involvement and abnormal lab findings.

B-cell NHLs include diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, and marginal zone lymphoma. T-cell NHLs include adult T-cell lymphoma and mycosis fungoides. Diagnosis is made by lymph node biopsy, bone marrow biopsy, or both. Management is with chemotherapy or targeted drugs. Radiation therapy is used in adults but not in children, and stem cell transplantation is used for patients with aggressive disease.

Glycogen Storage Disorders. Glycogen storage disorders GSDs are genetic defects leading to disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. The disorders are caused by pathogenic variants in genes that affect enzymes involved in glycogen breakdown. Presentations vary from being fatal in the neonatal period to having their initial presentation with symptoms in adulthood.

Diagnosis is clinical; detection of glycogen in tissues is by biopsy and confirmed by DNA analysis. Management aims to treat or avoid hypoglycemia, hyperuricemia, hyperlipidemia HLD , and lactic acidosis. No cure is currently available, but genetic therapies are being tested. Fatty Acid Metabolism.

Fatty acid metabolism includes the processes of either breaking down fatty acids to generate energy catabolic or creating fatty acids for storage or use anabolic. Besides being a source of energy, fatty acids can also be utilized for cellular membranes or signaling molecules. Synthesis and beta oxidation are almost the reverse of each other, and special reactions are required for variations unsaturated fatty acids, very-long-chain fatty acids VLCFAs.

Synthesis occurs in the cell cytoplasm, while oxidation occurs in mitochondria. Shuttling across membranes within a cell requires additional processes, such as the citrate and carnitine shuttles. In certain physiologic states, an increase in fatty acid oxidation can lead to the production of ketone bodies, which can also be utilized as an energy source, particularly in the brain and muscles.

Fatty Acids and Lipids. Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic organic molecules, which include fats, oils, sterols, and waxes. Eicosanoids are a family of cell-signaling molecules with important physiologic properties derived from the fatty acid, arachadonic acid. In addition, combining fatty acids with different bases, including glycerol, phosphate, and shingosine, results in different lipids with varied functions within the human body. Glycerolipids triacylglycerols are important for energy storage and thermal insulation.

Glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids are essential constituents of cellular plasma membranes. Another group of lipids is based off of isoprenoids, which are the building blocks of sterols such as cholesterol. Altered levels of lipids both an overabundance or deficiency can result in many potential disease processes. Disorders of Fatty Acid Metabolism. Fatty acid oxidation disorders FAODs are a group of genetic conditions caused by disruptions in beta-oxidation or the carnitine transport pathway.

These disruptions lead to an inability to metabolize fatty acids. All FAOD types are autosomal recessive. Because of the inability of the body to break down fatty acids, these fats accumulate in the liver and other internal organs. The clinical presentations of each disorder vary, but they commonly include hypoglycemia, cardiomyopathy, encephalopathy, seizures, myopathy, and liver dysfunction. Screening of newborns can detect these diseases, and DNA sequencing is usually performed to confirm the diagnosis.

Management includes dietary changes or substrate supplementation. Tachyarrhythmia may or may not be accompanied by symptoms of hemodynamic change. Pathologic tachyarrhythmias resulting in hemodynamic instability can be caused by intrinsic cardiac abnormalities, systemic diseases, or medication toxicity.

Supraventricular arrhythmias are called narrow-complex tachycardias and originate in the sinoatrial SA node, atrial myocardium, or atrioventricular AV node. Diagnosis is made by physical exam and ECG. Management is directed toward the type of tachyarrhythmia present and its underlying cause.

Development of the Abdominal Organs. The abdominal organs are derived primarily from endoderm, which forms the primitive gut tube. The gut tube is divided into 3 regions: foregut, midgut, and hindgut. The foregut gives rise to the lining of the GI tract from the esophagus to the upper duodenum, as well as the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. The midgut gives rise to the GI tract lining between the midduodenum and midtransverse colon. The hindgut gives rise to the GI tract lining from the midtransverse colon through the upper anal canal.

The mesoderm gives rise to the muscles of the GI tract wall, connective tissue including the mesenteries and omenta , and the vasculature. The ectoderm gives rise to the nerve tissue and the lining of the lower anal canal. Anterior Abdominal Wall. The anterior abdominal wall is anatomically delineated as a hexagonal area defined superiorly by the xiphoid process, laterally by the midaxillary lines, and inferiorly by the pubic symphysis. From the superficial to deep order, the anterior abdominal wall consists of the skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscle, transversalis fascia, and peritoneum.

The lateral abdominal muscles include the external and internal obliques and the transversus abdominis. Anterior abdominal muscles include the rectus abdominis and pyramidalis muscles. The abdominal wall is primarily supplied by epigastric arteries and innervated by thoracoabdominal nerves.

Urinary Tract. The urinary tract is located in the abdomen and pelvis and consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The structures permit the excretion of urine from the body. Urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the urinary bladder and out through the urethra. The bladder acts as a reservoir for urine until micturition is appropriate. Regulation of micturition relies on the CNS and the spinal cord. Sickle Cell Disease.

Sickle cell disease SCD is a group of genetic disorders in which an abnormal Hb molecule HbS transforms RBCs into sickle-shaped cells, resulting in chronic anemia, vasoocclusive episodes, pain, and organ damage. Sickle cell trait, which is the heterozygous condition, is the only 1 of the group that is generally benign and rarely associated with serious SCD-like complications.

Triggers such as stress and hypoxia can induce or worsen the sickling of RBCs. Individuals with SCD are susceptible to infection, infarction of various organs, and bone marrow aplasia; lung involvement in acute chest syndrome can be rapidly fatal. Sickle cells can usually be seen on the peripheral blood smear, but Hb electrophoresis is needed for diagnosis.

The management of painful episodes consists of IV fluids and analgesics, and in severe episodes, exchange transfusions may be required. Survival is improved by vaccination against bacterial infections, prophylactic antibiotics, and aggressive treatment of infections. Anatomy of the Heart. The heart is a 4-chambered muscular pump made primarily of cardiac muscle tissue. The heart is divided into 4 chambers: 2 upper chambers for receiving blood from the great vessels, known as the right and left atria, and 2 stronger lower chambers, known as the right and left ventricles, which pump blood throughout the body.

Blood flows through the heart in 1 direction, moving from the right side of the heart, through the lungs, and then returning to the left side of the heart, where it is pumped out to the rest of the body. As blood moves through the heart, 4 important valves prevent backflow. The heart muscle itself is supplied by the coronary arteries.

The heart also has its own conduction system, triggering its own rhythmic contractions. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis JIA , formerly known as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, is a heterogeneous group of inflammatory diseases characterized by inflammation of 1 or more joints and is the most common pediatric rheumatic disease.

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is classified according to its clinical presentation, and diagnosis is made with examination findings as well as confirmatory lab testing showing evidence of inflammation and characteristic X-ray findings. Treatment is directed at preventing loss of function and controlling or limiting joint damage, with a variable prognosis depending on the type.

Nephritic Syndrome. Nephritic syndrome is a broad category of glomerular diseases characterized by glomerular hematuria, variable loss of renal function, and hypertension. The clinical presentations of nephritic syndrome are highly varied, from asymptomatic with urinary abnormalities to life-threatening critical illness.

Diagnosis is suggested by hematuria, mild-to-moderate proteinuria, and certain serologies e. Management varies as widely as the clinical presentations, from watchful waiting in mild cases to immunosuppression and plasmapheresis in aggressive disease. Nephrotic Syndrome. Nephrotic syndrome is characterized by severe proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and peripheral edema. The primary etiologies of nephrotic syndrome are minimal change disease, membranous nephropathy, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

Other frequently observed clinical findings are hyperlipidemia and thrombotic disease. Diagnosis is suggested by the clinical findings, and kidney biopsy is necessary in most cases. Management varies with the etiology and usually involves glucocorticoids or other immunosuppressant drugs.

Renal Tubular Acidosis. Diagnosis is primarily through the history and laboratory analysis, including measurement of serum and urine anion gaps. Treatment involves the correction of chronic metabolic acidosis with alkali to prevent its long-term catabolic effects on bone and muscles, as well as addressing any underlying causes leading to the RTA. Breastfeeding is often the primary source of nutrition for the newborn. During pregnancy, hormonal stimulation causes the number and size of mammary glands in the breast to significantly increase.

After delivery, prolactin stimulates milk production, while oxytocin stimulates milk expulsion through the lactiferous ducts, where it is sucked out through the nipple by the infant. Breastfeeding has many benefits for the mother and baby, including a decreased risk of infections, GI distress, and atopic disease for the infant; and a decreased risk of anemia, cardiovascular disease, and breast and ovarian cancer for the mother.

True contraindications to breastfeeding exist but are quite rare. Important clinical conditions associated with breastfeeding include engorgement, mastitis, galactocele, breast abscess, and infant jaundice. The Febrile Baby. Fever is defined as a higher-than-normal body temperature.

It is a common symptom in the pediatric population as an isolated symptom or accompanied by other findings that can help narrow the differential diagnosis. In neonates and very young infants, the clinical presentation lacks specificity, so more diagnostic aids are deployed to rule out severe bacterial infection SBI and to begin treatment according to age and clinical evolution.

Thoracic Trauma in Children. Chest trauma rarely occurs in isolation and is often associated with polytrauma. The 2 major mechanisms involve blunt and penetrating forces. Pneumothorax, hemothorax, flail chest, and lung contusions are the most common injuries. Treatment of affected children is very similar to that of adults, but unique pediatric pathoanatomy dictates important differences in approach and management. Staphylococcus is a medically important genera of Gram-positive, aerobic cocci.

These bacteria form clusters resembling grapes on culture plates. Staphylococci are ubiquitous for humans, and many strains compose the normal skin flora. Staphylococcus aureus is the most virulent species; S.

Infection can cause a wide array of disease, including cellulitis, abscesses, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and medical device infections. Toxins formed by S. Antibiotic management varies based on the type of infection, severity, and sensitivity data. The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs located retroperitoneally against the posterior wall of the abdomen on either side of the spine. As part of the urinary tract, the kidneys are responsible for blood filtration and excretion of water-soluble waste in the urine.

The kidneys also play a major role in homeostatic processes, including electrolyte concentration, blood pressure, and acid—base regulation. Grossly, they consist of an outer cortex and inner medulla. Microscopic functional units known as nephrons filter the blood through a structure called the glomerulus, and this filtrate is then modified and concentrated as it moves through a complex tubular system.

The renal arteries supply the kidneys via a central opening, known as the renal hilum, on its medial side; large renal veins empty directly into the vena cava. Child and Adolescent Care. Child and adolescent care is the area of healthcare dedicated to individuals who are beyond the immediate neonatal age through adulthood.

These individuals do not present a uniform group, but are a series of patient populations, each with evolving healthcare needs both preventive and pathologic unique to them. Appropriate care aims to ensure optimal overall health to promote the physical, emotional, and social well-being of these often-challenging populations. Primary care physicians are usually responsible for child and adolescent care. Well-child visits are scheduled yearly for this purpose. These visits are an opportunity to obtain a detailed clinical history, monitor physiologic and psychologic development, assess growth parameters, and perform a thorough physical examination.

Age-specific screenings, counseling, and vaccinations should also be completed at these times. The testicles, also known as the testes or the male gonads, are a pair of egg-shaped glands suspended within the scrotum. The testicles have multiple layers: an outer tunica vaginalis, an intermediate tunica albuginea, and an innermost tunica vasculosa. The testicles are composed of testicular lobules contain interstitial tissue and seminiferous tubules produce spermatozoa.

Blood supply to the testicles is primarily provided by the testicular artery. Venous drainage is through testicular veins. Non-insulinotropic Diabetes Medications. Non-insulinotropic diabetes medications are used to treat type 2 diabetes by methods other than increasing insulin secretion. This group of medications includes the biguanides, thiazolidinediones, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, sodium—glucose transport protein 2 inhibitors, and amylin analogs.

Mechanisms of action vary, but they can include increasing peripheral insulin sensitivity, reducing glucagon release, inhibiting gluconeogenesis, slowing glucose absorption, and increasing satiety. Metformin is the initial medication of choice; others may be used as an alternative monotherapy or as adjunctive therapy.

Most of these medications are not associated with severe hypoglycemia, except for amylin analogs or when medications are used in conjunction with other hypoglycemic agents. Insulinotropic Diabetes Medications. Insulinotropic diabetes medications treat type 2 diabetes mellitus by increasing insulin secretion, which results in decreased glucose levels. The group of medications includes sulfonylureas, meglitinides, glucagon-like peptide-1 GLP-1 receptor agonists, and DPP-4 inhibitors.

The agents are usually used in combination with other therapies for diabetes management. Sulfonylureas and meglitinides are associated with weight gain, while GLP-1 agonists may provide the added benefit of weight loss. Other side effects vary between the drug classes. None of the medications should be used in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus or diabetic ketoacidosis.

Insulin is a peptide hormone that is produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin plays a role in metabolic functions such as glucose uptake, glycolysis, glycogenesis, lipogenesis, and protein synthesis. Exogenous insulin may be needed for individuals with diabetes mellitus, in whom there is a deficiency in endogenous insulin or increased insulin resistance.

There are several forms of insulin, and they differ in their time of onset, peak effect, and duration. Insulin can be classified as fast acting, short acting, intermediate acting, or long acting. A combination of classes can be used to maintain glucose control throughout the day. Common adverse effects include hypoglycemia, weight gain after initiation of an insulin regimen, and local injection site changes.

Infant care. A physician can greatly impact the quality of this care during the regularly scheduled outpatient visits, also known as well-child visits. Routine visits should be scheduled at regular intervals, with additional visits for acute concerns. The physician should conduct a history and physical examination; assess growth, development, and nutritional status; encourage administration of vaccinations; and provide anticipatory guidance and counseling to parents or caregivers, making sure to address any questions and concerns and to foster optimal development and support.

Hormonal contraceptives. Hormonal contraceptives HCs contain synthetic analogs of the reproductive hormones estrogen and progesterone, which may be used either in combination or in progestin-only formulations for contraception. These formulations act synergistically to produce antiovulatory effects and can also affect the endometrial lining typically decreasing bleeding and pain associated with menstruation , which is why they are also used to treat a variety of gynecologic issues.

Available formulations include oral contraceptive pills combined and progestin-only , transdermal patches, vaginal rings, progestin injections, subdermal implants, and intrauterine devices. Common adverse effects include nausea, headaches, mood changes, and irregular bleeding. Importantly, estrogens increase the risk of venous thromboembolism VTE and are contraindicated in individuals at risk for VTE. Other important contraindications include pregnancy, liver disease, and breast cancer.

Typical GBS is characterized by acute monophasic neuromuscular paralysis, which is symmetric and ascending in progression. If the paralysis reaches the respiratory muscles, GBS can progress into respiratory failure, which requires prolonged hospitalization. Management is mostly supportive and may require either plasma exchange or IV immunoglobulin.

Ataxia-telangiectasia, also known as Louis-Bar syndrome, is a neurocutaneous syndrome, which involves multiple systems but mainly affects the neurological system. Ataxia-telangiectasia presents with progressive ataxia, telangiectasias, extrapyramidal symptoms, dermatological manifestations, immune dysfunction, and progressive pulmonary disease.

Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation and confirmed with neuroimaging and genetic testing. Management is supportive with symptom management. Prognosis is poor secondary to numerous complications. Sympathomimetic Drugs. Sympathomimetic drugs are classified based on the type of receptors the drugs act on some agents act on several receptors but 1 is predominate. Clinical uses of sympathomimetics include the treatment of hypotension, asthma, and anaphylaxis.

The primary drugs used as IV vasopressors in the hospital are dopamine and norepinephrine. Dobutamine is given IV as an inotrope. Albuterol is used via nebulizer or metered-dose inhaler for asthma. Sympathomimetics may produce a wide range of adverse effects, which generally resemble excessive stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. Neurofibromatosis Type 2. Neurofibromatosis type 2 is a neurocutaneous disorder that can arise from mutations in the NF2 gene located in chromosome 22 and may be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion or occur from de novo mutations.

Other features can include eye lesions such as cataracts, skin lesions, and peripheral neuropathy. Diagnosis is made clinically from history and examination and confirmed with MRI, molecular testing, and histopathology. Tumor surveillance and follow-up with screening of at-risk family members is recommended. Stimulants are used by the general public to increase alertness and energy, decrease fatigue, and promote mental focus.

Stimulants have medical uses for individuals with ADHD and sleep disorders, and are also used in combination with analgesics in pain management. Stimulants are used in beverages and as over-the-counter medications, prescription medications, and drugs of abuse. Caffeine and nicotine are commonly used psychostimulants.

Amphetamines are used in a clinical setting for specific indications, but are more often used illegally as drugs of abuse along with cocaine. Each agent has its idiosyncrasies with respect to effects, withdrawal, and overdose.

Neurofibromatosis Type 1. Neurofibromatosis type 1 NF1 , also known as phakomatosis, is a neurocutaneous disorder that is most commonly of autosomal dominant inheritance due to mutations in the NF1 gene. At least half of the individuals with NF1 have learning disabilities. Neurofibromatosis type 1 may also cause osteodysplasia and malignant transformation of tumors.

The diagnosis is based on the typical clinical presentation and can be confirmed with genetic testing. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension. The condition is most commonly observed in obese women and after intake of certain drugs, such as growth hormones, tetracycline antibiotics, and high dosages of vitamin A.

Classic manifestations include headache, vision loss or visual-field defects, and papilledema. Diagnosis is made by clinical exam, imaging, and lumbar puncture. Increased ICP may result from several etiologies, including trauma, intracranial hemorrhage, mass lesions, cerebral edema, increased CSF production, and decreased CSF absorption. Increased ICP can lead to brain herniation and death if not treated promptly. Clinical presentation includes headache, drowsiness or altered level of consciousness, and papilledema.

Diagnosis is suspected based on the clinical presentation and confirmed with urgent brain imaging. Immediate management includes measures to decrease ICP, medications including diuretics, and surgery. Intravenous Fluids. Intravenous fluids IVFs are one of the most common interventions administered in medicine to approximate physiologic bodily fluids.

Intravenous fluids are divided into 2 categories: crystalloid and colloid solutions. Intravenous fluids have a wide variety of indications, including intravascular volume expansion, electrolyte manipulation, and maintenance fluids. Crystalloid solutions are typically used for patients who are hypovolemic, dehydrated, or have ongoing fluid losses.

Colloidal solutions may be used in cases of low oncotic pressure. Providers should choose fluid types based on the clinical scenario and best available evidence. All recipients of IVFs should be closely monitored to determine the goal and status of the fluid therapy. Urea cycle disorders. Urea cycle disorders UCDs are caused by genetic defects and result in deficiencies of enzymes and transporters of the urea cycle. As a result of the defects, individuals are unable to rid the body of nitrogen waste.

Common symptoms include vomiting, lethargy, seizures, and respiratory alkalosis. Most defects are autosomal recessive and definitive diagnosis is by molecular genetic testing. Treatment aims to reduce ammonia concentration in plasma. In less severe cases, acute episodes can be prevented through dietary restriction of protein.

Untreated disease may lead to seizures, coma, or death. Anatomy of the nose. The nose is the human body's primary organ of smell and functions as part of the upper respiratory system. The nose may be best known for inhaling oxygen and exhaling carbon dioxide, but it also contributes to other important functions, such as tasting. The anatomy of the nose can be divided into the external nose and the nasal cavity.

There are 12 cranial bones that contribute to the structure of the nose's walls and nasal conchae. Labial and Genital Herpes. Genital herpes infections are common sexually transmitted infections caused by herpes simplex virus HSV type 1 or 2. Herpes simplex virus type 1 is more commonly associated with non-genital herpes, while HSV-2 is more commonly associated with genital herpes.

Primary infection often presents with systemic, prodromal symptoms followed by clusters of painful, fluid-filled vesicles on an erythematous base, dysuria, and painful lymphadenopathy. Primary infection can also be asymptomatic. Herpes infections are unique in that the virus is able to remain dormant in the neuronal ganglia, which allows for recurrent infections.

Recurrent outbreaks are usually less severe than the initial infection. Treatment is with antiviral therapy, primarily acyclovir. Sinusitis refers to inflammation of the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses. The condition usually occurs concurrently with inflammation of the nasal mucosa rhinitis , a condition known as rhinosinusitis. Acute sinusitis is due to an upper respiratory infection caused by a viral, bacterial, or fungal agent.

Viral etiologies are the most common cause. Sinusitis presents with facial pain over the affected sinus and purulent rhinorrhea. Diagnosis is usually clinical and management is supportive, although it may require antibiotics. Catabolism of Amino Acids. Amino acids AAs can be acquired through the breakdown of intracellular or ingested dietary proteins. Amino acids can enter 3 metabolic routes within the body. They can 1 be recycled to synthesize new proteins; 2 combine with cofactors and substances to create amino acid derivatives; or 3 be catabolized into their functional groups and carbon skeletons.

This process releases ammonium, which moves into the urea cycle and produces intermediates for energetic metabolic pathways. Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis GPA is a rare autoimmune disease of unknown etiology. It leads to a necrotizing granulomatous inflammation of small and medium-sized blood vessels of the nose, sinuses, throat, lungs, and kidneys. Later stages can present with renal failure and severe respiratory disease. Early diagnosis and treatment of granulomatosis with polyangiitis which involves the administration of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents such as methotrexate may lead to a full remission but without treatment, the condition has a high mortality rate.

Common variable immune deficiency CVID , also known as humoral immunodeficiency, is a disorder of the immune system characterized by reduced serum levels of immunoglobulins G, A, and M. The underlying causes of CVID are largely unknown. Patients with this condition are prone to infections in the gastrointestinal tract and the upper and lower respiratory tracts.

CVID is also associated with a higher risk of developing autoimmune disorders, granulomatous diseases, and malignancy. Selective IgA Deficiency. Selective immunoglobulin A IgA deficiency is the most common type of primary immunodeficiency. The condition is a hypogammaglobulinemia characterized by a lack or reduced levels of IgA. This antibody mainly resides in the mucous membranes of the mouth, airways, and digestive tract.

The exact cause is unknown. The disease is usually asymptomatic, although some patients can present with recurrent respiratory and gastrointestinal infections as well as autoimmune and malignant disorders. Diagnosis is made with a measure of exceptionally low IgA levels in the serum in the presence of normal IgG and IgM levels.

Autosomal Dominant Hyperimmunoglobulin E Syndrome. Autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome AD-HIES , also known as Job's syndrome, is a rare form of primary immunodeficiency disorder that affects various organs systems in addition to the immune system. In other cases, the cause is unknown. Crohn's Disease. Crohn's disease is a chronic, recurrent condition that causes patchy transmural inflammation that can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract. The terminal ileum and proximal colon are usually affected.

Crohn's disease typically presents with intermittent, non-bloody diarrhea and crampy abdominal pain. Extraintestinal manifestations may include calcium oxalate renal stones, gallstones, erythema nodosum, and arthritis. Management is with corticosteroids, azathioprine, antibiotics, and anti-TNF agents infliximab and adalimumab. Complications include malabsorption, malnutrition, intestinal obstruction or fistula, and an increased risk of colon cancer.

Severe Combined Immunodeficiency. It is the most severe form of primary immunodeficiency and is characterized by dysfunction in both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Multiple mutations can result in heterogeneous types of SCID. Patients present with severe and recurrent infections within the first months of life.

Management includes IV immunoglobulins and bone marrow transplantation. If left untreated, SCID is usually fatal within the 1st year of life. Seborrheic Dermatitis. Seborrheic dermatitis is a common chronic, relapsing skin disorder that presents as erythematous plaques with greasy, yellow scales in susceptible areas scalp, face, and trunk.

Seborrheic dermatitis has a biphasic incidence, occurring in two peaks: first in infants, then in adolescence and early adulthood. Although the exact etiology is unknown, pathologic mechanisms have been observed involving the sebaceous glands and Malassezia on the skin. Topical medications are used for acute exacerbation or maintenance treatment. These options aim to inhibit skin colonization antifungal agents , reduce inflammation steroids, calcineurin inhibitors , and loosen scales and crusts keratolytic agents.

Severe and refractory seborrheic dermatitis may warrant the use of systemic antifungal medications. Friedreich's Ataxia. Friedreich's ataxia is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive spinocerebellar degeneration. Patients eventually become bedridden. Diagnosis is confirmed by genetic testing showing trinucleotide repeat expansion in the FXN gene.

Treatment is supportive and most patients die of heart disease in the 4th or 5th decade of life. Type III hypersensitivity, also known as immune complex-mediated hypersensitivity, occurs when antibodies and antigens form immune complexes ICs in circulation and deposit in susceptible tissues. The complement system triggers the immune response, leading to leukocyte recruitment and tissue injury. There is no single clinical syndrome for this hypersensitivity.

Symptoms reflect the impairment of multiple organ systems based on sites of IC deposition. Diagnostic workup depends largely on the history and includes laboratory tests, imaging, and biopsy of the affected organ. Treatment consists of removal or avoidance of offending agents and, in severe conditions, glucocorticoids or immunosuppressive therapy. Elimination Disorders. The elimination disorders that most commonly occur in childhood are enuresis urinary incontinence and encopresis fecal incontinence in inappropriate situations.

Enuresis can occur both in the daytime diurnal and at night nocturnal. Management of nocturnal enuresis primarily consists of behavior and lifestyle modifications but can include desmopressin. Encopresis is most often secondary to underlying constipation, although emotional stressors may also be involved. Management is primarily through treating constipation. Type IV Hypersensitivity Reaction. Type IV hypersensitivity reaction, or delayed-type hypersensitivity, is a cell-mediated response to antigen exposure.

The reaction involves T cells, not antibodies, and develops over several days. Presensitized T cells initiate the immune defense, leading to tissue damage. A cytokine-mediated process is activated by T-helper cells while cytotoxic T cells directly release cytotoxins to infected or dysfunctional cells, causing cell lysis. Clinical manifestations depend on the system involved, so diagnostic tests rely on history and findings.

Treatment includes controlling the effects of the immune response with glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive therapy while managing the associated disease complications. Precocious Puberty. Precocious puberty PP is the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics due to elevated sex hormones before the age of 6—8 in girls and 9 in boys. Excess hormone secretion may occur only at the level of the sex hormone or may involve the whole hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Measurement of sex hormone levels, as well as X-rays to evaluate skeletal maturity, are used to diagnose and characterize PP.

Correcting the hormonal excess at its root cause can appropriately delay the onset of puberty. A primary goal of treatment is the preservation of normal height potential. Benign Breast Conditions. Benign breast epithelial lesions are grouped histologically as nonproliferative, proliferative without atypia, and atypical hyperplasia. The classifications are based on subsequent cancer risk in either breast. The nonproliferative type carries no risk, while fibroadenoma, the most common benign tumor, is a proliferative breast lesion i.

Because atypical hyperplasia shares some features with breast carcinoma in situ, future cancer potential is increased. Management ranges from frequent monitoring to surgical excision, depending on certain factors, including the inherent risk of the pathologic diagnosis. Other breast disorders without malignant possibility are associated with underlying infection or systemic disease, so treatment differs.

Benign breast diseases are common but present diversely. It is important to distinguish between them to determine the likelihood of cancer and the best course of treatment. Hyperbilirubinemia of the Newborn. Hyperbilirubinemia of the newborn is a broad term that refers to various conditions that can cause accumulation of bilirubin during the first few days after birth.

The condition is often noted because of visible yellowing of the skin and sclera secondary to bilirubin deposition. Because hyperbilirubinemia arises from physiological processes that accompany birth, it is usually an expected finding. However, hyperbilirubinemia in the neonate can also have pathological etiologies, including breastfeeding-related, blood group isoimmunization, metabolic disorders, and infection.

Regardless of etiology, the primary goal of therapy in neonatal jaundice is to prevent the neurotoxic effect of indirect bilirubin, mainly kernicterus.

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Animals must defend themselves not only against other creatures that want to eat them, but sometimes against creatures of their The Monty Hall problem became infamous in the s where newspaper columnist and puzzle solver Marilyn vos Savant offered Subscribe for regular science videos: bit. When does a pandemic become endemic? It's been nearly two years since the first recorded COVID case, and we all wonder when the virus will disappear and whether Climate change is an issue that will affect all of us, and will require global solutions brought about by the collaboration of scientists As the global population grows, consumption patterns change and the impacts of climate change and growing scarcity of water From 29th December Crows are known as some of the best problem solvers of the animal kingdom.

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