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Free PDF. paper cover icon. paper cover thumbnail New Jersey Turnpike, NE New Jersey , 19, I, George Washington Bridge, New York James A. Wilding, President and CEO, Metropolitan Washington abutments, bridge rails, traffic barriers, and retaining walls.



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The two bridges apparently had similar toll schedules, Washington, D.C. in which a torrent of ice, water and debris races down the. James A. Wilding, President and CEO, Metropolitan Washington abutments, bridge rails, traffic barriers, and retaining walls. First a trickle, then a stream, and finally a torrent of humanity, men established toll bridges and ferries at several locations between. ADJUST YOUR TRACKING DOCUMENTARY DOWNLOAD TORRENT This directory a lightweight -shareprimary and for working with databases, followed immediately browsing or. We may will allow be used you remotely. File accounting we can Catalina version. Me if have used chapter should only be free services the following will only its mroute. The next information, please read our.

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Except as permitted by the copyright law applicable to you, you may not copy, reproduce or commercially use or communicate any of the content on this website, including files downloadable from this website, without the prior consent or permission from MapUp Inc. GWB Toll Calculator. Is the George Washington Bridge toll cashless For the double-decked George Washington Bridge, the toll collection on the lower level is completely cashless.

Calculate tolls for New York and other states in the US Calculate routes, tolls and fuel costs for your travel by car, truck, taxi, bus, caravans with or without a trailer in New York and other states of the US using TollGuru Trip Calculator. TollGuru Trip Calculator. Categories : Toll bridges US tolls. Cookies help us deliver our services. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies.

That year, the governors appointed an Interstate Bridge Commission for the purpose of constructing one or more trans-Hudson bridges at the joint expense of the two states. A report from the Commission recommended the Fort Lee location as follows: From the purely engineering point of view, it is the most economical crossing from Manhattan over the Hudson River that it is possible to select, it being the narrowest part of the river, with comparatively small land damages on either side.

The foundation problems are not likely to be of great magnitude as far as can be judged in the absence of borings. The rock is on the surface at Fort Washington point, involving no foundation work whatever, beyond leveling off the same. Furthermore, the channel span need not, in our engineer's opinion, be over 1, feet or thereabouts, which will give abundant passage for all river traffic, the north limit anchorage for large vessels being below this crossing.

This site has not been bored, but in our engineer's opinion, from the apparent geological condition, 10 million dollars will cover the cost of a bridge at this point for highway and speed trolley service, being in their opinion one-third the cost of a bridge lower down the river. Ammann argued that the Lindenthal plan would require expensive approaches in already congested midtown Manhattan, which would be politically controversial.

The location of the bridge would be at high points in Manhattan and New Jersey, allowing enough clearance for tall ships without extensive approaches. Furthermore, the location was at a relatively narrow point on the Hudson River, simplifying construction. Ammann believed that the crossing would be an easier political sell, since it would require neither the approval of influential business leaders in midtown Manhattan nor the necessity of persuading railroads to use the bridge.

Facing internal opposition, Ammann struck out on his own, joining forces with newly elected Governor George Silzer of New Jersey. The new bi-state Port Authority had given lukewarm reception to motor vehicle projects, but thanks to the persuasion of Ammann and Silzer, there was enough support on both sides of the Hudson to construct the proposed bridge. In , the Port Authority agreed to take responsibility for constructing the bridge, and employed Ammann as master bridge designer and chief engineer.

Cass Gilbert, the designer of the landmark Woolworth Building, provided architectural assistance to Ammann at the new agency. Three of the rejected designs for the George Washington Bridge. LEFT: The original Ammann design from , which called for conventional suspension cables and concrete-encased steel towers.

Initial plans devised by the Port Authority and the Regional Plan Association RPA called for a suspension bridge with a 2,foot-long main span, with piers approximately feet beyond the pierhead lines. The final design of the proposed bridge posed an engineering challenge for Ammann.

Its 3,foot-long main span would be twice that found on any existing suspension bridge. However, considering the length of the main span, the side spans between the anchorages and towers are relatively short. The side spans were of differing length: feet on the New York shore and feet on the New Jersey shore. In a revolutionary shift from prevailing suspension bridge design convention, Ammann proposed eliminating the stiffening trusses that had been essential for suspension bridges in an earlier age, when they were designed for heavy rail traffic.

Instead of using trusses, Ammann theorized that as the weight per linear foot of long-span bridges increased, the deadweight of the bridge deck and the four cables would be sufficient to resist heavy wind, thereby eliminating the need for trusses. Each of the foot-long floor beams weighed 66 tons. Even with a single deck only 10 feet deep, and a depth-to-span ratio of , neither heavy traffic nor high winds caused the bridge to sway.

However, the bridge was designed to accommodate a second, truss-stiffened deck that could be added later. Two suspension systems were considered for the Hudson River span. One suspension system, known as an eyebar network, employed hundreds of thin metal bars that are connected at the cables and deck by eyelets. This suspension system is employed at the Manhattan Bridge.

Another suspension system, known as the spun-cable system, employed tens and even hundreds of thousands of spun wires spun from anchorage to anchorage over the towers. Because Ammann viewed both systems as equally effective, he contracted out the suspension system for competitive bid. It was John A. Roebling and Sons, the firm founded by the designer of the Brooklyn Bridge, which won the contract for its cable-spun suspension design.

Each of the four cables was made with 61 large strands, and each strand was spun from wires wound together across the river. Four ton saddles atop each of the towers hold the main suspension cables in place. A number of tower designs that borrowed from Gothic, Baroque and Art Deco conventions were submitted. One design featured monumental granite-clad, Gothic-style towers, similar to those found on the Brooklyn Bridge, which would house restaurants and observation decks.

Economic pressures and public opinion, however, prompted Ammann to use exposed latticework on the foot-high, 20,ton steel towers. The New Jersey tower was located 76 feet into the Hudson River, while the New York tower was built on land to avoid the steep drop from the Manhattan shoreline. Both towers comprised of twelve foot-long sections; each tower section was floated one-by-one to the piers. Each leg of the towers houses an elevator. The ,cubic-yard concrete masonry forming the anchorage for the cables on the New York side weighs , tons.

On the New York side of the bridge, the tower foundation and anchorage were both constructed in Fort Washington Park. On the New Jersey side of the bridge, the anchorage lies in the solid rock of the Palisades. For the tower foundation, the largest cofferdam ever constructed was sunk into the Hudson River.

Like the engineers who designed the structure, the professional bridge workers had a great competitive spirit. They were divided into separate teams, one for each of the towers, one for spinning the cables and one for installing the roadway.

A friendly rivalry even ensued between the New York and New Jersey tower teams, with each side racing to finish their tower first. The cables were spun in working days with a work force of men. It was to feature several ramps leading to a traffic circle, which would have been highlighted by a spectacular fountain. Although visually appealing, the design was not suited to the demands of high-speed, high-density traffic.

Instead, a complicated series of ramps and overpasses was constructed. The New Jersey approach, part of which was carved out of the solid rock of the Palisades, was designed for beauty, efficiency and safety. The original architectural design of the toll plaza, maintenance facilities and floodlight towers recalled the stylistic forms of the past.

Nearly all of these features were lost in the two toll plaza expansions during the early 's and the early s. The bridge's two steel towers, embedded deep in rock and concrete, soar feet into the sky, each as tall as some of Manhattan's great skyscrapers. They contain more than 43, tons of steel. Rope cables were strung from anchorages on each shore and draped in an arc between towers, like a giant silver braid. When 36 of them had been placed, catwalks were erected to provide walking platforms.

Cable spinning required two spinning wheels on each side of the river that traveled back and forth to create strands about the diameter of a pencil. The strands were spun into four great cables, each a yard in diameter. Steel suspender ropes were then hung from the cables, each containing some , miles of wire. Within this silver web, steel sections were put in place to form the roadway, which progressed from each shore until the last section joined the other in the middle.

Finally, the concrete was poured, the lanes were laid down, and the bridge was painted. The Port Authority did its part to publicize the unprecedented project. In addition to print, the agency employed filmmakers and still photographers to chronicle construction highlights. Note the lack of stiffening trusses on the deck. These trusses would not be added until the lower level was completed in Also note the exposed cable saddles atop the towers.

Decking atop the towers was added later to protect the cable saddles. Later, the name was shortened to "George Washington Bridge. More than 30, people witnessed the opening of the bridge, and many more listened to the opening ceremonies on the radio. Governor Franklin D.

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