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Color Atlas and Textbook of Human Anatomy,Volume I Locomotor System - Werner Platzer, Werner Kahle, M. Frotscher Color Atlas and Textbook of Human Anatomy. nervous system and hormones. Liver. Digestive tract. Kidney. Skin. Lungs. Exchange of gases. Excretion of excess.

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b;Genc ;Tregidgo ;Arbos-Torrent et al. energy source used to power the vehicle-often a battery for electrical systems-must remain low mass. Werner PlatzerColor Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol. 1: Locomotor System (; 7th Edition). Open. The seventh edition of this classic work makes mastering. The microbiota and the brain communicate with each other via various routes including the immune system, tryptophan metabolism, the vagus nerve. LEGENDS PT BR PAIN AND GAIN TORRENT There are a portion the "General". For the latest Windows installer technology. Previously, with check the set by and share by using the following.

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CNS Neurosci Ther. Defective mitochondrial pyruvate flux affects cell bioenergetics in Alzheimer's disease-related models. Cell Rep. Brain energy rescue: an emerging therapeutic concept for neurodegenerative disorders of ageing. Nat Rev Drug Discov.

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Control of reactive oxygen species for the prevention of Parkinson's disease: the possible application of flavonoids. Antioxidants Basel doi: Cerebral glucose and dopa metabolism in movement disorders. Can J Neurol Sci.

Impaired oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate in fibroblasts from patients with Parkinson's disease. Chronic Parkinsonism in humans due to a product of meperidine-analog synthesis. Mitochondrial complex I deficiency in Parkinson's disease. Perier C, Vila M. Mitochondrial biology and Parkinson's disease. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. Neurotoxic in vivo models of Parkinson's disease recent advances. Prog Brain Res. Jackson-Lewis V, Przedborski S. Nat Protoc.

Complex I syndrome in striatum and frontal cortex in a rat model of Parkinson disease. Free Radic Biol Med. The proton pumping stoichiometry of purified mitochondrial complex I reconstituted into proteoliposomes. Wikstrom M. Two protons are pumped from the mitochondrial matrix per electron transferred between NADH and ubiquinone. FEBS Lett. Mitochondrial DNA depletion in respiratory chain-deficient Parkinson disease neurons.

Shinde S, Pasupathy K. Respiratory-chain enzyme activities in isolated mitochondria of lymphocytes from patients with Parkinson's disease: preliminary study. Neurol India. Rapid ATP loss caused by 1-methylphenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine in mouse brain. Anne C, Gasnier B. Vesicular neurotransmitter transporters: mechanistic aspects.

Curr Top Membr. Lotharius J, Brundin P. Impaired dopamine storage resulting from alpha-synuclein mutations may contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Alterations in axonal transport motor proteins in sporadic and experimental Parkinson's disease. EMBO Rep. The interplay of neuronal mitochondrial dynamics and bioenergetics: implications for Parkinson's disease. Neurobiol Dis. Protein quality control pathways at the crossroad of synucleinopathies. Distinct alpha-Synuclein species induced by seeding are selectively cleared by the Lysosome or the Proteasome in neuronally differentiated SH-SY5Y cells.

Oxidative stress in vagal neurons promotes parkinsonian pathology and intercellular alpha-synuclein transfer. J Clin Investig. Complex I deficiency primes Bax-dependent neuronal apoptosis through mitochondrial oxidative damage. Selective dopaminergic vulnerability: 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde targets mitochondria. Mitochondrial association of alpha-synuclein causes oxidative stress. Alpha-synuclein suppresses mitochondrial protease ClpP to trigger mitochondrial oxidative damage and neurotoxicity.

Acta Neuropathol. Mitochondria and alpha-Synuclein: friends or foes in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease? The process of Lewy body formation, rather than simply alpha-synuclein fibrillization, is one of the major drivers of neurodegeneration. Parkinson's disease protein DJ-1 regulates ATP synthase protein components to increase neuronal process outgrowth. DJ-1 null dopaminergic neuronal cells exhibit defects in mitochondrial function and structure: involvement of mitochondrial complex I assembly.

Overexpression of parkin ameliorates dopaminergic neurodegeneration induced by 1- methylphenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine in mice. Intracellular delivery of Parkin rescues neurons from accumulation of damaged mitochondria and pathological alpha-synuclein. Parkin prevents mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release in mitochondria-dependent cell death.

PINK1 and Parkin mitochondrial quality control: a source of regional vulnerability in Parkinson's disease. Mol Neurodegener. Parkin is recruited selectively to impaired mitochondria and promotes their autophagy. J Cell Biol. PINK1-associated Parkinson's disease is caused by neuronal vulnerability to calcium-induced cell death. Mol Cell. Eur J Neurosci. Restriction of mitochondrial calcium overload by mcu inactivation renders a neuroprotective effect in zebrafish models of Parkinson's disease.

Biol Open. The clinical features and progression of late-onset versus younger-onset in an adult cohort of huntington's disease patients. Cerebral metabolism and atrophy in Huntington's disease determined by 18FDG and computed tomographic scan. Body weight and dietary factors in Huntington's disease patients compared with matched controls. Med J Aust. Positron emission tomographic scan investigations of Huntington's disease: cerebral metabolic correlates of cognitive function. Glucose transportation in the brain and its impairment in Huntington disease: one more shade of the energetic metabolism failure?

Amino Acids. Measures of growth in children at risk for Huntington disease. Novel metabolic abnormalities in the tricarboxylic acid cycle in peripheral cells from Huntington's disease patients. Low anaerobic threshold and increased skeletal muscle lactate production in subjects with Huntington's disease. Evidence for impairment of energy metabolism in vivo in Huntington's disease using localized 1H NMR spectroscopy. Is brain lactate increased in Huntington's disease? J Neurol Sci. Neurochemical and histologic characterization of striatal excitotoxic lesions produced by the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid.

Chronic mitochondrial energy impairment produces selective striatal degeneration and abnormal choreiform movements in primates. Influence of 3-nitropropionic acid on physiological and behavioral responses in zebrafish larvae and adults.

Creatine increase survival and delays motor symptoms in a transgenic animal model of Huntington's disease. Combination therapy with coenzyme Q10 and creatine produces additive neuroprotective effects in models of Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases. Front Cell Dev Biol. Proteomics of Huntington's disease-affected human embryonic stem cells reveals an evolving pathology involving mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic disturbances.

J Proteome Res. Early mitochondrial calcium defects in Huntington's disease are a direct effect of polyglutamines. Disruption of axonal transport by loss of huntingtin or expression of pathogenic polyQ proteins in Drosophila. Mitochondria, OxPhos, and neurodegeneration: cells are not just running out of gas. Camandola S, Mattson MP. Brain metabolism in health, aging, and neurodegeneration. Calcium signaling and molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative diseases.

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Hypothesis AAC, W, Calcium Hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease and brain aging: a framework for integrating new evidence into a comprehensive theory of pathogenesis. Bezprozvanny I, Mattson MP. Neuronal calcium mishandling and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Trends Neurosci. Abeta ion channels.

Abeta plaques lead to aberrant regulation of calcium homeostasis in vivo resulting in structural and functional disruption of neuronal networks. Dis Model Mech. Plasma membrane ion permeability induced by mutant alpha-synuclein contributes to the degeneration of neural cells.

The L-type channel antagonist isradipine is neuroprotective in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Raymond LA. Striatal synaptic dysfunction and altered calcium regulation in Huntington disease. Huntingtin and huntingtin-associated protein 1 influence neuronal calcium signaling mediated by inositol- 1,4,5 triphosphate receptor type 1.

Enhanced store-operated calcium entry leads to striatal synaptic loss in a Huntington's disease mouse model. Quasi-synaptic calcium signal transmission between endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Dolphin AC, Lee A. Presynaptic calcium channels: specialized control of synaptic neurotransmitter release. The role of mitochondrial calcium homeostasis in Alzheimer's and related diseases. Int J Mol Sci. Mitochondrial Abeta: a potential focal point for neuronal metabolic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease.

Cyclophilin D deficiency attenuates mitochondrial and neuronal perturbation and ameliorates learning and memory in Alzheimer's disease. Nat Med. Mutant Pink1 induces mitochondrial dysfunction in a neuronal cell model of Parkinson's disease by disturbing calcium flux. Alpha-synuclein overexpression and aggregation exacerbates impairment of mitochondrial functions by augmenting oxidative stress in human neuroblastoma cells.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol. ER-mitochondria signaling in Parkinson's disease. Flis VV, Daum G. Lipid transport between the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Cardiolipin and mitochondrial phosphatidylethanolamine have overlapping functions in mitochondrial fusion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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Mitofusin-2 independent juxtaposition of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria: an ultrastructural study. Mitofusin-2 knockdown increases ER-mitochondria contact and decreases amyloid beta-peptide production. J Cell Mol Med. Proteomic mapping of cytosol-facing outer mitochondrial and ER membranes in living human cells by proximity biotinylation.

Mitochondria-associated membranes: composition, molecular mechanisms, and physiopathological implications. Mitochondria-associated membranes MAMs : overview and its role in Parkinson's disease. Curr Biol. New functions of mitochondria associated membranes in cellular signaling. Vance JE. MAM mitochondria-associated membranes in mammalian cells: lipids and beyond. Cardiolipin affects the supramolecular organization of ATP synthase in mitochondria.

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The Parkinson disease-related protein DJ-1 counteracts mitochondrial impairment induced by the tumour suppressor protein p53 by enhancing endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria tethering. Bit-by-bit autophagic removal of parkin-labelled mitochondria. Khacho M, Slack RS. Mitochondrial dynamics in the regulation of neurogenesis: from development to the adult brain. Dev Dyn. During autophagy mitochondria elongate, are spared from degradation and sustain cell viability.

Mitochondrial response to nutrient availability and its role in metabolic disease. Pharmacological activation of AMPK prevents Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission and alleviates endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated endothelial dysfunction. J Mol Cell Cardiol. Abnormalities of mitochondrial dynamics in neurodegenerative diseases. Mitophagy is triggered by mild oxidative stress in a mitochondrial fission dependent manner.

Mitochondrial abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease. Gene expression profiles of transcripts in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice: up-regulation of mitochondrial metabolism and apoptotic genes is an early cellular change in Alzheimer's disease. Mitochondria morphology and DNA content upon sublethal exposure to beta-amyloid 1—42 peptide. Coll Antropol. Impairment in mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene expression in Alzheimer disease.

Brain Res Mol Brain Res. Mitochondrial DNA damage as a mechanism of cell loss in Alzheimer's disease. Lab Invest. Alzheimer's disease is associated with reduced expression of energy metabolism genes in posterior cingulate neurons. S-nitrosylation of Drp1 mediates beta-amyloid-related mitochondrial fission and neuronal injury. Genetics and genomics of Parkinson's disease.

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Transcriptional repression of PGC-1alpha by mutant huntingtin leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration. S-nitrosylation of dynamin-related protein 1 mediates mutant huntingtin-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and neuronal injury in Huntington's disease. Effects of overexpression of huntingtin proteins on mitochondrial integrity. Mutant HTT huntingtin impairs mitophagy in a cellular model of Huntington disease.

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ACS Chem Biol. Inhibition of aconitase by nitric oxide leads to induction of the alternative oxidase and to a shift of metabolism towards biosynthesis of amino acids. J Exp Bot. The regulatory properties of isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase and isocitrate dehydrogenase phosphatase from Escherichia coli ML and the roles of these activities in the control of isocitrate dehydrogenase.

Reversal of nitric oxide-, peroxynitrite- and S-nitrosothiol-induced inhibition of mitochondrial respiration or complex I activity by light and thiols. Persistent inhibition of cell respiration by nitric oxide: crucial role of S-nitrosylation of mitochondrial complex I and protective action of glutathione.

Galkin A, Moncada S. S-nitrosation of mitochondrial complex I depends on its structural conformation. Nitric oxide-induced persistent inhibition and nitrosylation of active site cysteine residues of mitochondrial cytochrome-c oxidase in lung endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. Preconditioning results in S-nitrosylation of proteins involved in regulation of mitochondrial energetics and calcium transport.

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Biochem Pharmacol. Quantitative relationship between inhibition of respiratory complexes and formation of reactive oxygen species in isolated nerve terminals. Nitric oxide in the central nervous system: neuroprotection versus neurotoxicity. Integrated multi-cohort transcriptional meta-analysis of neurodegenerative diseases.

Energy intake and exercise as determinants of brain health and vulnerability to injury and disease. Cell Metab. Amato S, Man HY. Bioenergy sensing in the brain: the role of AMP-activated protein kinase in neuronal metabolism, development and neurological diseases. Cell Cycle. Regulation of neuron mitochondrial biogenesis and relevance to brain health.

Aging Albany NY ; 1 — PGC-1alpha modulates denervation-induced mitophagy in skeletal muscle. Skelet Muscle. Impaired mitochondrial biogenesis contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. PGC-1alpha expression decreases in the Alzheimer disease brain as a function of dementia. PGC-1alpha, a potential therapeutic target for early intervention in Parkinson's disease. Sci Transl Med. PGC-1alpha activity in nigral dopamine neurons determines vulnerability to alpha-synuclein.

Suppression of reactive oxygen species and neurodegeneration by the PGC-1 transcriptional coactivators. PGC-1alpha deficiency causes multi-system energy metabolic derangements: muscle dysfunction, abnormal weight control and hepatic steatosis. PLoS Biol. Impairment of PGC-1alpha expression, neuropathology and hepatic steatosis in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease following chronic energy deprivation.

Neurochem Res. Diabetes mellitus and risk of Alzheimer disease and decline in cognitive function. Type 2 diabetes and the risk of Parkinson's disease. Cell death is not the only primary consequence of CNS injury. After stroke, brain architectural changes occur over the course of days and months Carmichael, Time-dependent reorganization of neuronal circuits can promote functional recovery, but may also lead to uncontrolled neuron firing and detrimental alteration of brain function.

Thus far, several studies have highlighted the presence of genetic determinants influencing neuronal vulnerability and the repair program after stroke. Congenic mapping combined with phenotypic analysis of a region of the mouse genome attributed to variation in vasculature architecture has found a kilobase kb locus on chromosome 7 containing 28 genes Sealock et al. Among others, the membrane trafficking Ran-binding protein 2 Rabep2 has been identified as a candidate gene controlling collateral blood vessel growth.

In addition to alterations in the native vasculature, other factors contribute to brain damage after stroke. A genome-wide association study performed in 33 inbred mouse strains has identified a kb region of the genome associated with the size of brain damage Du et al. Blood vessels and axons share molecular mechanisms of guidance, growth and terminal arborization Weinstein, Carmeliet and Tessier-Lavigne, , all of which are necessary steps to improve functional outcome after stroke.

Indeed recent evidence has demonstrated the intimate connection between immune cells, newly formed blood vessels and axonal regrowth in the periphery Parrinello et al. By using an inbred mouse neuronal phenotypic screen, we have recently found that axonal sprouting ability after stroke is controlled by genetic components Omura et al. It is not known yet whether these newly formed connections are functional.

Since the ability of axons to regenerate is highly variable between different species or rodent lineages, genotype-regeneration phenotype association studies have recently attracted much interest Bely and Nyberg, ; Tanaka and Ferretti, Differences in the regulation of gene function represents a major driving force in evolution, indeed in most cases the structure of ancestral proteins and therefore gene coding sequences do not change across taxa, instead it is the regulation of these proteins as well as divergence through duplication that is the engine of evolution.

Protein function can be altered in many ways and altering the rates of mRNA transcription represents a primary control point. Consistent with this, recent evidence suggests that transposable elements common within our genomes represent an attractive route by which complex gene networks can be divergently modulated through evolution Chuong et al.

Here, cis-regulatory regions transcription factor binding sites move throughout the genome by hitching a ride on these endogenous retroviral mobile elements. Thus, it is likely that specific gene expression patterns will control marked differences in regeneration ability across different species and mouse genetic backgrounds.

Microarray analysis shows a number of genes differentially regulated in these strains Dimou et al. Neuronal injury is often accompanied by an inflammatory response with either positive or negative effects, promoting or impeding recovery respectively Kroner et al. Strikingly, a decrease in macrophage density is accompanied by an increase in astrocytic processes as well as peripheral and central axonal projections within the lesion site of X1Sv mice Ma et al.

As a result of CNS injury, astrocytic response can range from reversible alterations in cellular morphology to long lasting changes in tissue anatomy such as scar formation Anderson et al. The presence of glial bridges at the injury epicenter has been documented in several studies where successful CNS regeneration has been reported Goldshmit et al.

Although immature astrocytes are permissive for axon growth Filous et al. Following SCI, tissue damage is cleared by microglia and macrophages and often, the glial scar surrounds a fluid-filled cavity that represents an additional barrier to axon regeneration Basso et al. Alternatively, macrophage-filled cysts persist when fluid-filled cavities are absent. Interestingly, mouse strains with exacerbated intra-spinal inflammation also develop intense fibrosis, further supporting the conclusion that neuroinflammation after SCI has a genetic component Kigerl et al.

Ultrastructural analysis highlights the presence of disorganized and loosely arranged cellular substrates at the site of injury in these mice. Together, the observations above highlight the importance of the genetic background, and suggest the significance of strain-specific genetic factors controlling CNS repair and axonal regeneration among various recombinant inbred mouse strains. Screening for differences in axon growth capacity among these lines may facilitate the discovery of previously unknown regenerative pathways, accelerating progress towards potential therapies for CNS diseases.

Indeed, when the top 20 differentially-regulated genes following pre-conditioning are compared among the different strains, only 10 genes are found in common between them; these common genes and their functional partners, however, represent the core-conditioning response Chandran et al. Injury conditioning is where pre-injured DRG neurons are able to regenerate much quicker and stronger than their non-injured counterparts Richardson and Issa, ; Smith and Skene, This injury-induced program is present in most rodent strains so far examined Ylera et al.

In rats, pre-conditioning injury allows the central axons of the pre-injured ascending sensory neurons to grow into and beyond the lesion following dorsal column SCI Mills et al. Core set of genes whose expression increases in DRG after a peripheral nerve lesion. A List of the top ten genes shared among all nine inbred mouse strains shown in Figure 1. Functional networks were then generated using Cytoscape V3.

Gene circles represent core injury associated genes, blue circles are genes that are in close functional association with the core injury genes. Similarly, injury-primed RGCs robustly regenerate their axons after optic nerve crush injury Omura et al.

There are over Schematic showing the mechanism of action of Activin regulation after a conditioning lesion, Activin signaling and consequent axonal growth in a CNS environment. Both transcripts are required for strong axonal growth in the CNS. The advantage of this method is that it does not assume a change must be present at the transcriptional level as in Omura et al.

In such a case it is possible to reduce the number of CC-strains screened for the phenotype of interest Crisman et al , in press. The reason why such a remarkable strain difference is present in mammalian CNS axon regeneration is not clear. In addition understanding how selection pressure promoted these differences will be an important point to consider for future investigations.

One may speculate that these signaling cascades, which are used in embryonic neural growth and in simpler life forms can be repurposed to produce effective CNS regeneration later. In mammals, however, this is not the case because the signals to turn the Activin or TGF-related cascades back on are securely switched off. In this case it is also tempting to speculate that there does not need to be a reason for this essentially random event, and it will remain uncommon, unless evolutionary selection leads to its amplification.

A functional network was then generated using Cytoscape. Inhba indicated by arrow. This pathway is likely an integral part of intrinsic axonal growth in the CNS. Activin is expressed during development, cell proliferation, differentiation and regeneration Wijayarathna and de Kretser, In embryonic stem cells, Activin is necessary and sufficient to maintain the pluripotent status of the post-implantation epiblast Vallier et al.

In zebrafish, Activin is required for regenerative growth of the fin Jazwinska et al. In leopard gecko, which can regenerate a tail after predatory loss, a marked increase in phosphorylated Smad2 expression and strong Activin upregulation is observed during the early stages of blastema formation, indicating a crucial role of this pathway in this regenerative response Gilbert et al. Activin exerts a significant role during wound healing and is strongly expressed after skin injury Hubner et al.

Moreover, it is known to increase the number of mature mast cells in mouse skin in vivo Antsiferova et al. Planaria, flatworms of the class Turbellaria, retain an amazing ability to regenerate their head or tails following amputation. A recent study suggests that such remarkable regeneration program is centered on a follistatin homolog gene Smed-follistatin , which is expressed after injury. Smed-follistatin likely initiates tissue regeneration via regulating Activin signaling following injuries that cause tissue loss Gavino et al.

In the CNS, Activin exerts its neuroprotective effect by regulating basic fibroblast growth factor Tretter et al. In serum response factor and megakaryoblastic leukemia-dependent manner, Activin promotes dendritic complexity by increasing the number and length of dendrites Ishikawa et al. Knocking out dActivin around the mid-third instar stage interferes with this process, further supporting a role of Activin signaling pathway in neuronal remodeling Zheng et al.

Blocking Activin with SB, a potent Activin receptor antagonist significantly reduces both axon elongation and initiation. Intra-ocular addition of Activin in zymosan-primed RGCs results in a four-fold increase in the number of regenerating axons following optic nerve injury demonstrating an important role for Activin in CNS regeneration Omura et al. Moreover, recapitulation of embryonic development paradigms, through enhancement of Activin signaling, could augment CNS regeneration without manipulating pathways which can interfere with tumor development such as phosphatase and tensin homolog PTEN Park et al.

Our in vitro study shows that although significant axonal growth and initiation can be achieved by addition of Activin in C57 sensory neurons, maximal axonal growth values were about half of the conditioned CAST neurons. Interestingly, the comparison of our in vivo optic nerve injury study also show that the number of regenerating axons in C57 with the administration of Activin was approximately half of the CAST values.

Together, these findings suggest that extrinsic and intrinsic pathways likely impinge on Activin signaling modules affecting cell growth and differentiation. Molecular dissection of the role of Activin in controlling both neuron-intrinsic and extrinsic determinants requires further investigation.

Selective transduction of BMP4 in the DRG by intrathecal delivery of adeno-associated viral AAV particles induces pSmad1 accumulation in the nucleus and promotes regeneration of ascending dorsal column axons after experimental SCI in mice Parikh et al. BMP is also required for peripheral nerve regeneration. Noggin, an endogenous inhibitor for BMP, attenuates the preconditioning effect both in vitro and in vivo Ma et al.

In a mouse stroke model, GDF10 promotes axonal sprouting in peri-infarct cortex and enhanced functional recovery Li et al. GDF10 knockdown negatively impacts on axonal sprouting and behavioral recovery after stroke Li et al. Transcriptome profiling of isolated cortical neurons from the peri-infarct area reveals an intriguing molecular program orchestrated by GDF10 targeting specific canonical pathways including axonal guidance molecules, PTEN and PI3 kinase signaling Li et al.

A comprehensive transcriptome analysis in different model systems may provide further insights into mechanisms that regulate axonal sprouting and recovery upon GDF10 administration. In dopaminergic neurons, spinal cord neurons, brainstem neurons, sensory neurons and the cerebellar granule neurons, GDF15 acts as a potent pro-survival factor Strelau et al. Promoting axonal regeneration is crucial for functional recovery after CNS injury.

To be functionally capable, regenerating axons not only have to travel long distances to reach denervated targets but they also have to form new synapses and remyelinate. Despite the progress that has been made in understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of axonal regeneration, long distance functional regeneration still represents a remarkable challenge.

Will we be able to achieve long distance functional regeneration? Even two segments c. Thus, a few centimeters of functional regeneration can significantly improve the quality of life of SCI patients. Manipulation of neuron-intrinsic and extrinsic factors represents a promising way to achieve this arduous goal. Thus far, one of the best known targets for promoting cell intrinsic growth is PTEN, a negative regulator of the mammalian target of rapamycin mTOR pathway.

Pten deletion promotes robust axon regeneration after optic nerve injury Park et al. Deletion of the cytokine signaling 3 suppressor SOCS3 supports axon regeneration via a gpdependent pathway Smith et al. Regenerating RGC axons are able to form new synapses with neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus after injury Li et al.

When combined with administration of voltage-gated potassium channel blockers to restore axonal conduction Sun et al. The vast majority of RGCs undergo cell death after optic nerve injury Bahr, Using quantitative proteomics analysis of intact and injured RGCs, a recent study has identified c- myc as a novel target for neural repair strategies. C- myc functions as a key regulator of cell cycle progression, apoptosis and cellular transformation.

Forced expression of c- myc in RGCs before or after optic nerve injury can double the survival rate and allows significant increase in the number and length of the regenerating axons. Doublecortin-like kinases DCLKs are also shown to promote survival and axonal elongation of RGCs via stabilization of microtubule structures and prevention of destabilization of the F-actin in the injured axon stumps Nawabi et al. Guidance molecules steer axons by regulating cytoskeletal dynamics in the CNS and genetic manipulation of these molecules can lead to enhanced regeneration.

Roundabout-Like protein 1 Robo1 is expressed in the growth cones and known as a receptor for Slit homolog Slit. Robo1 functions as an intrinsic brake for the thalamocortical axons and disruption of either Robo1 or Slit1 accelerates the progression of thalamocortical axons in vivo Mire et al.

Specific knockdown of Rock2 and Limk1 equally enhances neurite outgrowth of RGCs on inhibitory substrates and both induces substantial neuronal regeneration over distances of more than 5mm, 28 days after rat optic nerve crush Koch et al. Together, these studies suggest that targeting one single pathway may not be sufficient to effectively promote long distance axon regeneration and functional recovery after injury.

Further testing of different combinatorial approaches will be an important direction for future investigations. A critical point to consider is that several of these genetic strategies target tumor suppressor genes. As deletion of these genes is associated with the development of cancer, manipulation of these genes may not be safe for immediate clinical interventions.

Thus, finding safer alternatives will be desirable. Although many axons may survive initial trauma or eventually regenerate following a successful intervention, the death of neurons and glia impacts negatively on recovery of function. Transplantation of genetically engineered cells derived from embryonic stem cells or fetal nervous tissues represents a promising strategy to create more favorable conditions for axon regeneration and functional connectivity after injury Lu et al.

Loss of oligodendrocytes negatively impacts the action potential conduction and interventions to promote re-myelination include transplantation of myelin-producing cells. Embryonic stem cells can be genetically engineered to produce functional oligodendrocytes capable of myelinating axons in vivo Cummings et al. Cell replacement strategies continuously develop. Recent evidence shows that human platelet-derived growth factor-responsive neural precursors differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes capable of re-myelinating axons in the injured rat spinal cord Plemel et al.

After severe SCI, transplanted multipotent neural progenitor cells can differentiate into neurons and glia. Several thousands of graft-derived axons are seen growing into the host grey and white matter tissue, serving as a neuronal relay across a complete spinal cord lesion Lu et al. Such robust axonal growth of grafted cells has never been achieved in the adult CNS. Part of this success can be attributed to novel methods to suspend and deliver cells to the site of injury using 3-dimensional scaffolds, highlighting the importance of tissue engineering in regenerative medicine Madigan et al.

Global gene expression profiling in these cells may identify candidate genes to influence growth responsiveness. By promoting cell survival and maintaining the growth and regeneration of axons, neurotrophic factors play an important role in combinatorial approaches for spinal cord repair McCall et al. After fetal neural stem cells transplantation, it is common to find ectopic colonies in different areas of the nervous system Steward et al.

The fact that cells in these ectopic colonies continue to proliferate 2 months after cell grafting with formation of large cellular masses, represents a risk factor for physiological complications. Finding the right balance between conditions that promote survival, proliferation and axon outgrowth while avoiding formation of ectopic colonies may be necessary before clinical trials occur.

After SCI, inhibitory proteoglycan expression associated with the perineuronal net increases in denervated target neurons, thus creating an active barrier for target re-innervation Massey et al. Removal of these inhibitory molecules with Chondroitinase ABC has proven to promote functional recovery in a variety of experimental SCI models Alilain et al.

These studies also highlight the importance of combining treatments with target-specific rehabilitation programs. Transplantation of Schwann cells modified to secrete Chondroitinase ABC and neurotrophin promotes axon regeneration, myelination and functional recovery after spinal cord contusion injury in rats Kanno et al. Recent observations suggest that the beneficial effects of Chondroitinase ABC are not limited to enhanced plasticity but it also modulates the immune response by altering activated macrophage polarization with beneficial effects on tissue repair after CNS injury David and Kroner, ; Didangelos et al.

Although fibrosis is an important step during wound healing, it significantly inhibits axon regeneration after CNS injury Soderblom et al. Therefore, ideal combinatorial treatments for CNS repair should also reduce fibrotic scarring.

Recent studies show that moderate microtubule stabilization reduces fibrotic scarring by suppressing polarization and migration of scar-forming fibroblasts Hellal et al. Implementation of these strategies, either alone or in combination with other treatments like blockade of myelin inhibitors and aiding intrinsic neuronal grow, is well positioned to leverage significant improvement of neurological outcome in SCI patients.

Despite recent progress in identifying intrinsic regenerative pathways, understanding the molecular and genetic mechanisms of neuronal regrowth after CNS injury represents a continuous challenge. Axon regeneration and neural repair are complex, multi-step processes.

While the site of injury undergoes time dependent reorganization, nerve damage triggers molecular signals that need to travel from the site of injury back to the neuronal cell body to activate cellular growth programs Abe and Cavalli, Retrograde transport of injury-activated factors leads to profound changes in the nuclear architecture regulating gene expression thus controlling the intrinsic neuronal regenerative response Ben-Yaakov et al.

Each of these mechanisms needs to be considered as well as the environment, injured or not, that the regenerating axons grow within. This incredibly complex set of challenges will necessitate the continued use of experimental mammals to accurately model the systems at play. Mouse genetic lines tallied with evidence from other species, including lower organisms such as Drosophila , reptiles, amphibians and fish, represent our best hope of developing functional nerve regeneration strategies.

With the development of high-throughput omics technologies, interrogation and visualization of complex profiling data across regenerating and non-regenerating model systems has allowed identification of regeneration-associated gene expression signatures.

Screening of small compound libraries that induce a regeneration signature and corresponding cellular phenotype can identify promising drug leads in well-conceived screens. In addition, analysis of molecular interaction profiles may allow the design of novel multicomponent approaches. In conclusion, the capacity to accurately integrate and deconvolute complex biological networks and gene expression data from growing and non-growing injured neurons represents an incredible source of opportunities for discovering novel molecular targets to promote CNS regeneration and repair strategies.

We have never been more able to determine, understand and therefore successfully manipulate the complex signaling pathways required to sponsor true functional regeneration in the CNS. As even imperfect axonal growth and regeneration strategies will likely be of profound benefit to SCI patients, through collateral sprouting for instance, we must continue the quest to functionally repair the traumatically damaged adult CNS.

The Dr. Miriam and Sheldon G. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Publisher's Disclaimer: This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final citable form.

Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain. Exp Neurol. Author manuscript; available in PMC Jan 1. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Correspondence should be addressed to: Andrea Tedeschi ed. Copyright notice. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Exp Neurol.

See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract The importance of genetic diversity in biological investigation has been recognized since the pioneering studies of Gregor Johann Mendel and Charles Darwin. Introduction Since the experiments and theories of Moravian monk Gregor Johann Mendel Mendel, and English naturalist and geologist Charles Darwin Darwin, in the mid-nineteenth century, scientists have studied the role of genetic variation in the morphological and functional differences between species and different lineages within taxa.

Mouse models for studying axon regeneration Among the different mammalian models used to study the genetic contribution to complex traits, mice have by far been the most applied model system Rossant and McKerlie, Open in a separate window.

Figure 1. Figure 2. The role of the genetic background on CNS repair and regeneration Genetic determinants influencing the response to optic nerve injury The failure of axonal regeneration within the adult mammalian CNS is partly due to the high propensity of the neurons to undergo apoptosis following injury. Genetic determinants influencing the response to stroke Cell death is not the only primary consequence of CNS injury. Genetic determinants influencing axon regeneration capacity Since the ability of axons to regenerate is highly variable between different species or rodent lineages, genotype-regeneration phenotype association studies have recently attracted much interest Bely and Nyberg, ; Tanaka and Ferretti, Figure 3.

Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Promoting axonal regeneration and CNS repair by manipulation of neuron-intrinsic and extrinsic factors Promoting axonal regeneration is crucial for functional recovery after CNS injury. Cell intrinsic strategies Thus far, one of the best known targets for promoting cell intrinsic growth is PTEN, a negative regulator of the mammalian target of rapamycin mTOR pathway. Cell extrinsic strategies Although many axons may survive initial trauma or eventually regenerate following a successful intervention, the death of neurons and glia impacts negatively on recovery of function.

Conclusion Despite recent progress in identifying intrinsic regenerative pathways, understanding the molecular and genetic mechanisms of neuronal regrowth after CNS injury represents a continuous challenge.

Footnotes Conflict of interest The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. References Abe N, Cavalli V. Nerve injury signaling. Curr Opin Neurobiol. Functional regeneration of respiratory pathways after spinal cord injury. Identification of wild-derived inbred mouse strains highly susceptible to monkeypox virus infection for use as small animal models.

Journal of virology. Heterogeneity of reactive astrocytes. Neuroscience letters. Regulatory networks in retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury. BMC genetics. Mast cells are dispensable for normal and activin-promoted wound healing and skin carcinogenesis.

J Immunol. Live or let die - retinal ganglion cell death and survival during development and in the lesioned adult CNS. Trends in neurosciences. Mouse strain differences in susceptibility to cerebral ischemia are related to cerebral vascular anatomy. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. Graded histological and locomotor outcomes after spinal cord contusion using the NYU weight-drop device versus transection.

Basso Mouse Scale for locomotion detects differences in recovery after spinal cord injury in five common mouse strains. J Neurotrauma. Endogenous repair after spinal cord contusion injuries in the rat. Injury-induced decline of intrinsic regenerative ability revealed by quantitative proteomics. Evolution of animal regeneration: re-emergence of a field. Axonal transcription factors signal retrogradely in lesioned peripheral nerve.

EMBO J. Reaching the brain: Advances in optic nerve regeneration. Axotomy results in delayed death and apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells in adult rats. J Neurosci. Kruppel-like Factor 7 engineered for transcriptional activation promotes axon regeneration in the adult corticospinal tract. Spinal cord injury: plasticity, regeneration and the challenge of translational drug development. Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society.

Chondroitinase ABC promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury. Conditioning injury-induced spinal axon regeneration fails in interleukin-6 knock-out mice. Common mechanisms of nerve and blood vessel wiring. Regeneration of the adult central nervous system. Current biology : CB. Injury-induced HDAC5 nuclear export is essential for axon regeneration. PTEN inhibition to facilitate intrinsic regenerative outgrowth of adult peripheral axons. Regulatory evolution of innate immunity through co-option of endogenous retroviruses.

Lineage-specific biology revealed by a finished genome assembly of the mouse. PLoS biology. The Collaborative Cross, a community resource for the genetic analysis of complex traits.

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